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Претражи Живе Речи Утехе

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Found 24 results

  1. Islamic India – The biggest holocaust in World History The genocide suffered by the Hindus of India at the hands of Arab, Turkish, Mughal and Afghan occupying forces for a period of 800 years is as yet formally unrecognised by the World. With the invasion of India by Mahmud Ghazni about 1000 A.D., began the Muslim invasions into the Indian subcontinent and they lasted for several centuries. Nadir Shah made a mountain of the skulls of the Hindus he killed in Delhi alone. Babur raised towers of Hindu skulls at Khanua when he defeated Rana Sanga in 1527 and later he repeated the same horrors after capturing the fort of Chanderi. Akbar ordered a general massacre of 30,000 Rajputs after he captured Chithorgarh in 1568. The Bahamani Sultans had an annual agenda of killing a minimum of 100,000 Hindus every year. The history of medieval India is full of such instances. The holocaust of the Hindus in India continued for 800 years, till the brutal regimes were effectively overpowered in a life and death struggle by the Sikhs in the Panjab and the Hindu Maratha armies in other parts of India in the late 1700’s. We have elaborate literary evidence of the World’s biggest holocaust from existing historical contemporary eyewitness accounts. The historians and biographers of the invading armies and subsequent rulers of India have left quite detailed records of the atrocities they committed in their day-to-day encounters with India’s Hindus. These contemporary records boasted about and glorified the crimes that were committed – and the genocide of tens of millions of Hindus, Sikhs, Buddhist and Jainist, mass rapes of women and the destruction of thousands of ancient Hindu / Buddhist temples and libraries have been well documented and provide solid proof of the World’s biggest holocaust. Quotes from modern historians Dr. Koenraad Elst in his article “Was There an Islamic Genocide of Hindus?” states: “There is no official estimate of the total death toll of Hindus at the hands of Islam. A first glance at important testimonies by Muslim chroniclers suggests that, over 13 centuries and a territory as vast as the Subcontinent, Muslim Holy Warriors easily killed more Hindus than the 6 million of the Holocaust. Ferishtha lists several occasions when the Bahmani sultans in central India (1347-1528) killed a hundred thousand Hindus, which they set as a minimum goal whenever they felt like punishing the Hindus; and they were only a third-rank provincial dynasty. The biggest slaughters took place during the raids of Mahmud Ghaznavi (ca. 1000 CE); during the actual conquest of North India by Mohammed Ghori and his lieutenants (1192 ff.); and under the Delhi Sultanate (1206-1526).“ He also writes in his book “Negation in India”: “The Muslim conquests, down to the 16th century, were for the Hindus a pure struggle of life and death. Entire cities were burnt down and the populations massacred, with hundreds of thousands killed in every campaign, and similar numbers deported as slaves. Every new invader made (often literally) his hills of Hindus skulls. Thus, the conquest of Afghanistan in the year 1000 was followed by the annihilation of the Hindu population; the region is still called the Hindu Kush, i.e. Hindu slaughter.” Will Durant argued in his 1935 book “The Story of Civilisation: Our Oriental Heritage” (page 459): “The Mohammedan conquest of India is probably the bloodiest story in history. The Islamic historians and scholars have recorded with great glee and pride the slaughters of Hindus, forced conversions, abduction of Hindu women and children to slave markets and the destruction of temples carried out by the warriors of Islam during 800 AD to 1700 AD. Millions of Hindus were converted to Islam by sword during this period.” Francois Gautier in his book ‘Rewriting Indian History’ (1996) wrote: “The massacres perpetuated by Muslims in India are unparalleled in history, bigger than the Holocaust of the Jews by the Nazis; or the massacre of the Armenians by the Turks; more extensive even than the slaughter of the South American native populations by the invading Spanish and Portuguese.” Alain Danielou in his book, Histoire de l’ Inde writes: “From the time Muslims started arriving, around 632 AD, the history of India becomes a long, monotonous series of murders, massacres, spoliations, and destructions. It is, as usual, in the name of ‘a holy war’ of their faith, of their sole God, that the barbarians have destroyed civilizations, wiped out entire races.” Irfan Husain in his article “Demons from the Past” observes: “While historical events should be judged in the context of their times, it cannot be denied that even in that bloody period of history, no mercy was shown to the Hindus unfortunate enough to be in the path of either the Arab conquerors of Sindh and south Punjab, or the Central Asians who swept in from Afghanistan…The Muslim heroes who figure larger than life in our history books committed some dreadful crimes. Mahmud of Ghazni, Qutb-ud-Din Aibak, Balban, Mohammed bin Qasim, and Sultan Mohammad Tughlak, all have blood-stained hands that the passage of years has not cleansed..Seen through Hindu eyes, the Muslim invasion of their homeland was an unmitigated disaster. “Their temples were razed, their idols smashed, their women raped, their men killed or taken slaves. When Mahmud of Ghazni entered Somnath on one of his annual raids, he slaughtered all 50,000 inhabitants. Aibak killed and enslaved hundreds of thousands. The list of horrors is long and painful. These conquerors justified their deeds by claiming it was their religious duty to smite non-believers. Cloaking themselves in the banner of Islam, they claimed they were fighting for their faith when, in reality, they were indulging in straightforward slaughter and pillage…” A sample of contemporary eyewitness accounts of the invaders and rulers, during the Indian conquests The Afghan ruler Mahmud al-Ghazni invaded India no less than seventeen times between 1001 – 1026 AD. The book ‘Tarikh-i-Yamini’ – written by his secretary documents several episodes of his bloody military campaigns : “The blood of the infidels flowed so copiously [at the Indian city of Thanesar] that the stream was discoloured, notwithstanding its purity, and people were unable to drink it…the infidels deserted the fort and tried to cross the foaming river…but many of them were slain, taken or drowned… Nearly fifty thousand men were killed.” In the contemporary record – ‘ Taj-ul-Ma’asir’ by Hassn Nizam-i-Naishapuri, it is stated that when Qutb-ul- Din Aibak (of Turko – Afghan origin and the First Sultan of Delhi 1194-1210 AD) conquered Meerat, he demolished all the Hindu temples of the city and erected mosques on their sites. In the city of Aligarh, he converted Hindu inhabitants to Islam by the sword and beheaded all those who adhered to their own religion. The Persian historian Wassaf writes in his book ‘Tazjiyat-ul-Amsar wa Tajriyat ul Asar’ that when the Alaul-Din Khilji (An Afghan of Turkish origin and second ruler of the Khilji Dynasty in India 1295-1316 AD) captured the city of Kambayat at the head of the gulf of Cambay, he killed the adult male Hindu inhabitants for the glory of Islam, set flowing rivers of blood, sent the women of the country with all their gold, silver, and jewels, to his own home, and made about twentv thousand Hindu maidens his private slaves. This ruler once asked his spiritual advisor (or ‘Qazi’) as to what was the Islamic law prescribed for the Hindus. The Qazi replied: “Hindus are like the mud; if silver is demanded from them, they must with the greatest humility offer gold. If a Mohammadan desires to spit into a Hindu’s mouth, the Hindu should open it wide for the purpose. God created the Hindus to be slaves of the Mohammadans. The Prophet hath ordained that, if the Hindus do not accept Islam, they should be imprisoned, tortured, finally put to death, and their property confiscated.” Timur was a Turkic conqueror and founder of the Timurid Dynasty. Timur’s Indian campaign (1398 – 1399 AD) was recorded in his memoirs, collectively known as ‘Tuzk-i-Timuri.’ In them, he vividly described probably the greatest gruesome act in the entire history of the world – where 100,000 Hindu prisoners of war in his camp were executed in a very short space of time. Timur after taking advice from his entourage says in his memoirs : “they said that on the great day of battle these 100,000 prisoners could not be left with the baggage, and that it would be entirely opposed to the rules of war to set these idolaters and foes of Islam at liberty. “In fact, no other course remained but that of making them all food for the sword’ Timur thereupon resolved to put them to death. He proclaimed : “throughout the camp that every man who has infidel prisoners was to put them to death, and whoever neglected to do so should himself be executed and his property given to the informer. When this order became known to the ghazis of Islam, they drew their swords and put their prisoners to death. 100,000 infidels, impious idolaters, were on that day slain. Maulana Nasir-ud-din Umar, a counselor and a man of learning, who, in all his life had never killed a sparrow, now, in execution of my order, slew with his sword fifteen idolatrous Hindus, who were his captives“. During his campaign in India – Timur describes the scene when his army conquered the Indian city of Delhi : “In a short space of time all the people in the [Delhi] fort were put to the sword, and in the course of one hour the heads of 10,000 infidels were cut off. The sword of Islam was washed in the blood of the infidels, and all the goods and effects, the treasure and the grain which for many a long year had been stored in the fort became the spoil of my soldiers. “They set fire to the houses and reduced them to ashes, and they razed the buildings and the fort to the ground….All these infidel Hindus were slain, their women and children, and their property and goods became the spoil of the victors. I proclaimed throughout the camp that every man who had infidel prisoners should put them to death, and whoever neglected to do so should himself be executed and his property given to the informer. When this order became known to the ghazis of Islam, they drew their swords and put their prisoners to death.” The Mughal emperor Babur (who ruled India from 1526 -1530 AD) writing in his memoirs called the ‘Baburnama’ – wrote : ” In AH 934 (2538 C.E.) I attacked Chanderi and by the grace of Allah captured it in a few hours. We got the infidels slaughtered and the place which had been Daru’l-Harb (nation of non-muslims) for years was made into a Daru’l-Islam (a muslim nation).” In Babur’s own words in a poem about killing Hindus (From the ‘Baburnama’ ) he wrote : “For the sake of Islam I became a wanderer, I battled infidels and Hindus, I determined to become a martyr Thank God I became a Killer of Non-Muslims!” The atrocities of the Mughal ruler Shah Jahan (who ruled India between 1628 – 1658 AD) are mentioned in the contemporary record called : ‘Badshah Nama, Qazinivi & Badshah Nama , Lahori’ and goes on to state : “When Shuja was appointed as governor of Kabul he carried on a ruthless war in the Hindu territory beyond Indus…The sword of Islam yielded a rich crop of converts….Most of the women (to save their honour) burnt themselves to death. Those captured were distributed among Muslim Mansabdars (Noblemen)” The Afghan ruler Ahmad Shah Abdali attacked India in 1757 AD and made his way to the holy Hindu city of Mathura, the Bethlehem of the Hindus and birthplace of Krishna. The atrocities that followed are recorded in the contemporary chronicle called : ‘Tarikh-I-Alamgiri’ : “Abdali’s soldiers would be paid 5 Rupees (a sizeable amount at the time) for every enemy head brought in. Every horseman had loaded up all his horses with the plundered property, and atop of it rode the girl-captives and the slaves. The severed heads were tied up in rugs like bundles of grain and placed on the heads of the captives…Then the heads were stuck upon lances and taken to the gate of the chief minister for payment. “It was an extraordinary display! Daily did this manner of slaughter and plundering proceed. And at night the shrieks of the women captives who were being raped, deafened the ears of the people…All those heads that had been cut off were built into pillars, and the captive men upon whose heads those bloody bundles had been brought in, were made to grind corn, and then their heads too were cut off. These things went on all the way to the city of Agra, nor was any part of the country spared.” Banda Singh Bahadur was tortured to death after being imprisoned for 3 months. The heart of Banda Singh’s son was put in his mouth in an attempt to humiliate him Why we should remember The biggest holocaust in World History has been whitewashed from history. When we hear the word HOLOCAUST most of us think immediately of the Jewish holocaust. Today, with increased awareness and countless cinema films and television documentaries – many of us are also aware of the Holocaust of the Native American peoples, the genocide of the Armenian peoples in the Ottoman Empire, and the millions of African lives lost during the Atlantic slave trade. Europe and America produced at least a few thousand films highlighting the human misery caused by Hitler and his army. The films expose the horrors of Nazi regime and reinforce the beliefs and attitude of the present day generation towards the evils of the Nazi dictatorship. In contrast look at India. There is hardly any awareness among the Indians of today of what happened to their ancestors in the past, because a great majority of historians are reluctant to touch this sensitive subject. The World seems to either ignore or just does not seem to care about the many millions of lives lost during the 800 – year long holocaust of Hindus, Sikhs and Buddhist in India. The Indian historian Professor K.S. Lal estimates that the Hindu population in India decreased by 80 million between 1000 AD and 1525 AD, an extermination unparalleled in World history. This slaughter of millions of people occurred over regular periods during many centuries of Arab, Afghan, Turkish and Mughal rule in India. Many Indian heroes emerged during these dark times – including the 10th Sikh Guru – Guru Gobind Singh and also the Hindu Maratha king – Shivaji Maratha – who led the resistance against this tyranny and eventually led to its defeat by the late 1700s – after centuries of death and destruction. The modern World today is facing a global threat from organizations and groups of terrorists such as the ISIS, Taliban and Al-Qaeeda – whose ideology is chillingly similar to that of the perpetrators of the World’s biggest holocaust in India. Let us hope that the bloody lessons of the past are learnt so that history does not even have the remotest chance of repeating itself. (https://www.sikhnet.com/news/islamic-india-biggest-holocaust-world-history)
  2. Ovde mozemo da razmenimo utiske o filmu, kako ko bude stizao da gleda, tako da ona druga tema i ona opsta o Star Warsu nemaju postove o tome, a radi izbegavanja spoiler-a. Ko bude gledao neka izvoli da ovde napise svoje utiske ili kompletan review.
  3. Version 1.0.0

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    Dietrich Bonhoeffer
  4. Version 1.0.0

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    Dietrich Bonhoeffer
  5. In the past three month alone, more than 200 universities have announced 560 such free online courses. I’ve compiled this list below and categorized the courses into the following subjects: Computer Science, Mathematics, Programming, Data Science, Humanities, Social Sciences, Education & Teaching, Health & Medicine, Business, Personal Development, Engineering, Art & Design, and finally Science. If you have trouble figuring out how to signup for Coursera courses for free, don’t worry — I’ve written an article on how to do that, too. Here’s the full list of new free online courses. Most of these are completely self-paced, so you can start taking them at your convenience. COMPUTER SCIENCE Convolutional Neural Networks from deeplearning.ai (taught by Stanford Prof. Andrew Ng) Sequence Models from deeplearning.ai Improving Deep Neural Networks: Hyperparameter tuning, Regularization and Optimization from deeplearning.ai Structuring Machine Learning Projects from deeplearning.ai Neural Networks and Deep Learning from deeplearning.ai Algorithms: Design and Analysis from Stanford University (old Couresra course, but hosted without any paywalls directly by Stanford) Algorithms: Design and Analysis, Part 2 from Stanford University The Unix Workbench from Johns Hopkins University Accessible Gamification for Business from Georgia Institute of Technology Machine Learning from Georgia Institute of Technology Accounting Analysis II: Measurement and Disclosure of Liabilitiesfrom University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Deep Learning for Business from Yonsei University Introduction to TCP/IP from Yonsei University TV Whitespaces for Museums and Archives from San Jose State University Capstone: Autonomous Runway Detection for IoT from EIT Digital Cryptography and Information Theory from University of Colorado System Cryptographic Hash and Integrity Protection from University of Colorado System Fundamentals of Network Communication from University of Colorado System Packet Switching Networks and Algorithms from University of Colorado System Cybersecurity Policy for Water and Electricity Infrastructures from University of Colorado System Cybersecurity Policy for Aviation and Internet Infrastructures from University of Colorado System Proactive Computer Security from University of Colorado System Enterprise System Management and Security from University of Colorado System Peer-to-Peer Protocols and Local Area Networks from University of Colorado System Introduction to Cybersecurity for Business from University of Colorado System Cyber Threats and Attack Vectors from University of Colorado System Planning, Auditing and Maintaining Enterprise Systems from University of Colorado System Windows Server Management and Security from University of Colorado System Linux Server Management and Security from University of Colorado System Detecting and Mitigating Cyber Threats and Attacks from University of Colorado System Homeland Security & Cybersecurity Connection — It’s Not About the Terrorists from University of Colorado System Basic Cryptography and Programming with Crypto API from University of Colorado System Classical Cryptosystems and Core Concepts from University of Colorado System Asymmetric Cryptography and Key Management from University of Colorado System Symmetric Cryptography from University of Colorado System Secure Networked System with Firewall and IDS from University of Colorado System TCP/IP and Advanced Topics from University of Colorado System Homeland Security and Cybersecurity Future from University of Colorado System Hacking and Patching from University of Colorado System Design and Analyze Secure Networked Systems from University of Colorado System Sparse Representations in Image Processing: From Theory to Practicefrom Technion — Israel Institute of Technology Sparse Representations in Signal and Image Processing: Fundamentalsfrom Technion — Israel Institute of Technology Cutting Edge Deep Learning For Coders, Part 2 from fast.ai Architettura degli elaboratori from University of Urbino Liberating Programming: System Development for Everyone from Weizmann Institute of Science Big Data Applications: Machine Learning at Scale from Yandex Digital Accessibility as a Business Practice from Ryerson University Банковское дело и финансы from Sberbank Corporate University MATHEMATICS Calculus Applied! from Harvard University Differential Equations: 2x2 Systems from Massachusetts Institute of Technology Introduction to Probability: Part 1 — The Fundamentals from Massachusetts Institute of Technology Number Theory and Cryptography from University of California, San Diego Introduction to Graph Theory from University of California, San Diego What is a Proof? from University of California, San Diego Solving Delivery Problem from University of California, San Diego Геометрия и группы from Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology Mathematical Foundations for Cryptography from University of Colorado System More Fun with Prime Numbers from Kyoto University Precalculus: the Mathematics of Numbers, Functions and Equationsfrom University of Padova Einführung in die Graphentheorie from ITMO University PROGRAMMING Advanced MATLAB for Scientific Computing from Stanford University Building Web Applications in PHP from University of Michigan JavaScript, jQuery, and JSON from University of Michigan Building Database Applications in PHP from University of Michigan Introduction to Structured Query Language (SQL) from University of Michigan Database Systems Concepts and Design from Georgia Institute of Technology Programming Fundamentals from Duke University Parallel Programming in Java from Rice University Python Data Representations from Rice University Python Programming Essentials from Rice University Concurrent Programming in Java from Rice University Distributed Programming in Java from Rice University Introduction to Virtual Reality from University of London International Programmes Building Interactive 3D Characters and Social VR from University of London International Programmes 3D Interaction Design in Virtual Reality from University of London International Programmes 3D Models for Virtual Reality from University of London International Programmes Making Your First Virtual Reality Game from University of London International Programmes Agile Software Development from University of Minnesota Lean Software Development from University of Minnesota Engineering Practices for Building Quality Software from University of Minnesota Software Development Processes and Methodologies from University of Minnesota Server-side Development with NodeJS, Express and MongoDB from The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology Globally Distributed Software Engineering from Delft University of Technology Программирование на Python from Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology Основы HTML и CSS from Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology Основы дизайна мобильных приложений from Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology Introducción a la programación orientada a objetos en Java from Universidad de los Andes Object-Oriented Design from University of Alberta Design Patterns from University of Alberta Software Architecture from University of Alberta Service-Oriented Architecture from University of Alberta Video Game Design: Teamwork & Collaboration from Rochester Institute of Technology Aprende a programar en C desde cero from Universitat Jaume I Introducción a la programación en Python I: Aprendiendo a programar con Python from Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile Базы данных (Databases) from Saint Petersburg State University Fare Apps in classe, ora! from University of Urbino Introducción al diseño de videojuegos from Universitas Telefónica Creando Apps. Aprende a programar aplicaciones móviles from Universitas Telefónica Game Design and Development: Video Game Character Design from Abertay University Hacking PostgreSQL: Data Access Methods from Ural Federal University DATA SCIENCE Causal Diagrams: Draw Your Assumptions Before Your Conclusionsfrom Harvard University Principles, Statistical and Computational Tools for Reproducible Science from Harvard University Data Science: R Basics from Harvard University Big Data Analytics in Healthcare from Georgia Institute of Technology Statistical Modeling and Regression Analysis from Georgia Institute of Technology Data Analytics Foundations for Accountancy I from University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Introduction to Genomic Data Science from University of California, San Diego Python Data Analysis from Rice University Python Data Visualization from Rice University Understanding Your Data: Analytical Tools from University of Virginia Big Data and the Environment from University of Reading Knowledge Inference and Structure Discovery for Education from University of Texas Arlington Predictive Modeling in Learning Analytics from University of Texas Arlington Multimodal Learning Analytics from University of Texas Arlington Feature Engineering for Improving Learning Environments from University of Texas Arlington Cluster Analysis from University of Texas Arlington Learning Analytics Fundamentals from University of Texas Arlington Social Network Analysis (SNA) from University of Texas Arlington Connecting Learning Data to Improve Instructional Design from University of Texas Arlington Whole genome sequencing of bacterial genomes — tools and applications from Technical University of Denmark (DTU) Understanding Data from George Mason University Análisis de Datos Experimentales: Utilidades Básicas. from Universidad Politécnica de Madrid Advanced Data Mining with Weka from University of Waikato Тренды и классификации from Novosibirsk State University Введение в данные from Novosibirsk State University pt010: 高校生のためのデータサイエンス入門 from Shiga University Big Data Applications: Real-Time Streaming from Yandex Big Data Analysis: Hive, Spark SQL, DataFrames and GraphFramesfrom Yandex Big Data Essentials: HDFS, MapReduce and Spark RDD from Yandex HUMANITIES Religion, Conflict and Peace from Harvard University Masterpieces of World Literature: The Ancient World from Harvard University Masterpieces of World Literature: Fictions of the Modern World from Harvard University China Humanities: The Individual in Chinese Culture from Harvard University Sports and the University from Stanford University Supporting English Learners: Resources for Leaders from Stanford University Wonders of Ancient Egypt from University of Pennsylvania Race and Cultural Diversity in American Life and History from University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Studying in Italian — Law and Economics: a MOVE-ME Project Coursefrom The Open University Studying in Italian — Science and Mathematics: a MOVE-ME Project Course from The Open University Faith and Finance from Boston University Philosophy, Science and Religion: Philosophy and Religion from University of Edinburgh The Birmingham Qur’an: Its Journey from the Islamic Heartlands from University of Birmingham Frontières en tous genres from University of Geneva Incipit. Curso básico de lengua y cultura latinas from Universitat Politècnica de València Arab-Islamic History: From Tribes to Empires from Tel Aviv University El Valle de los Reyes from Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (Autonomous University of Barcelona) Knowledge Exchange: Using, Protecting and Monetizing Ideas with Third Parties from Leiden University ITA101 — Benvenuti in Italia! Orientarsi con l’italiano from Politecnico di Milano Re-imaging God in Korean Context from Yonsei University Mitos clásicos y mundo actual from Universidad Carlos iii de Madrid Philosophy for Children and P.E.A.C.E. from University of Naples Federico II La Letteratura latina in età post-augustea from University of Naples Federico II Dante tra poesia e scienza from University of Naples Federico II L’Italiano nel mondo from University of Naples Federico II La costruzione dell’Italia from University of Naples Federico II L’innovazione sociale per il patrimonio culturale from University of Naples Federico II Comprendere la filosofia from University of Naples Federico II Business Start–Up: From Idea to Launch from George Washington University Exercise Physiology — The Body In Motion from University of Exeter Safeguarding Athletes from Harassment and Abuse from McMaster University Writing your World: Finding yourself in the academic space from University of Cape Town Power of the Pen: Identities and Social Issues in Fiction and Nonfictionfrom University of Iowa Power of the Pen: Identities and Social Issues in Poetry and Plays from University of Iowa Sports Nutrition: Eat to Compete from Federal University of the State of Rio de Janeiro The Art and Science of Coaching from University of Pretoria Russian History: from Lenin to Putin from University of California, Santa Cruz Why Research Matters from Deakin University Humphry Davy: Laughing Gas, Literature, and the Lamp from Lancaster University Paesaggi di Roma Antica. Archeologia e storia del Palatino. from Sapienza University of Rome (K-12) Teaching Math to English Language Learners from Iowa State University The Spain of Don Quixote from Universidad Autónoma de Madrid Words Spun Out of Images: Visual and Literary Culture in Nineteenth Century Japan from The University of Tokyo Logic and Paradoxes from Universidad de Navarra New Zealand Landscape as Culture: Islands (Ngā Motu) from Victoria University of Wellington Китайский для начинающих (Chinese for beginners) from Saint Petersburg State University A History of Violence: From the Middle Ages to Modern Times from University of Newcastle Digital Culture and Writing from University of Burgundy Livres enluminés à la cour des Sforza from University of Pavia ga080: memento mori-死を想え- from Tohoku University 다문화 사회와 공존의 인문학 from Inha University Beer Matters from University of Wisconsin — Whitewater pt015: 食文化の本来と将来 from Kokushikan University Visión cristiana de la persona humana from Pontifical Catholic University of Valparaíso Spanish Across the Americas: Beginners from Universidad Nacional de Córdoba Comunicación cultural en España from Antonio de Nebrija University Fantastic Fiction and Where to Find It from Linnaeus University The Bible in Light of the Ancient Near East from Bar-Ilan University Introduction to Kabbalah from Ben-Gurion University of the Negev SOCIAL SCIENCES Essentials of Program Strategy and Evaluation from Stanford University The Threat of Nuclear Terrorism from Stanford University Love as a Force for Social Justice from Stanford University Democracy and Development: Perspectives from Africa from Massachusetts Institute of Technology Network Dynamics of Social Behavior from University of Pennsylvania Public Library Marketing and Public Relations from University of Michigan Fake News, Facts, and Alternative Facts from University of Michigan Grant Writing and Crowdfunding for Public Libraries from University of Michigan The Internet and You from University of Michigan Privacy, Reputation, and Identity in a Digital Age from University of Michigan Strategic Planning for Public Libraries from University of Michigan Infrastructure Management for Public Libraries from University of Michigan Introduction to Psychology as a Science 2 — Fundamentals of the Mind and Behavior from Georgia Institute of Technology Introduction to Psychology as a Science 3 — Normal and Abnormal Behavior from Georgia Institute of Technology Introduction to Psychology as a Science 1 — Methodological and Biological Foundations from Georgia Institute of Technology Everyday Parenting: The ABCs of Child Rearing from Yale University Risk and Return and the Weighted Average Cost of Capital from Columbia University Federal Taxation I: Individuals, Employees, and Sole Proprietors from University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Federal Taxation II: Property Transactions of Business Owners and Shareholders from University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign The Science of Parenting from University of California, San Diego Introduction to Social Research Methods from University of Edinburgh 电子商务 E-Commerce from Peking University Microeconomic Principles: Decision-making Under Scarcity from Arizona State University Stalin and Stalinism in Russian History from Higher School of Economics Justice, Mercy and Mass Incarceration from Vanderbilt University International Affairs: Global Governance from University of Geneva Genre : quels enjeux ? Violences, globalisation, biomédecine, sexualités. from University of Geneva El desarrollo de la relación laboral: Derechos y Obligaciones from Universitat Politècnica de València Evaluación de peligros y riesgos por fenómenos naturales from Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México 經濟學概論:誘因與市場(Introduction to Economics: Incentive and Markets) from National Taiwan University Trade, Immigration and Exchange Rates in a Globalized World from IE Business School Genius. Talent. Golden Mediocrity from Tsinghua University Political Economy of Institutions and Development from Leiden University After the Arab Spring — Democratic Aspirations and State Failure from University of Copenhagen ED101: Embracing Diversity from Politecnico di Milano SustArch101 — Sustainable building design for tropical climates: principles and guidelines for EAC from Politecnico di Milano La povertà nella società contemporanea from University of Naples Federico II Psicologia dell’apprendimento from University of Naples Federico II Il potere dei sondaggi from University of Naples Federico II Long-term Financial Management from University System of Maryland Flood Risk Management from RWTH Aachen University Counseling and Psychotherapy Theory from Seoul National University Global Prosperity Beyond GDP from University College London Principios de Microeconomía from George Mason University Responsive Cities from ETH Zurich Understanding the General Data Protection Regulation from University of Groningen Water for the People: Gender, Human Rights, and Diplomacy from Colorado State University Online Human Population Dynamics: Births, Deaths and Migrations from McGill University Life of the law from Universidad de Navarra Římské právo from Palacký University, Olomouc Les transitions énergétique-écologiques dans les pays du Sud from École normale supérieure Understanding child development: from synapse to society from Utrecht University Exploring Economics: Will the Next Generation Be Worse Off? from Griffith University Введение в гендерную социологию (Introduction to the Sociology of Gender) from Saint Petersburg State University Психолингвистика (Psycholinguistics) from Saint Petersburg State University Правовое регулирование отношений в Интернете. Российская перспектива from Saint Petersburg State University Global Studies: the End of Globalization? from Grenoble School of Management Психология сознания (Psychology of consciousness) from Saint Petersburg State University Understanding Violence Against Women: Myths and Realities from University of Strathclyde Theory of Change for Development from University of the Witwatersrand Сравнение и создание групп from Novosibirsk State University Исследование статистических взаимосвязей from Novosibirsk State University Ser competente digital, para vivir y convivir en la sociedad en red from Universitat Oberta de Catalunya Common Sense Economics For Life (Part 3) from Gus A. Stavros Center Beyond the Ballot: Women’s Rights and Suffrage from 1866 to Todayfrom Royal Holloway, University of London Common Sense Economics For Life (Part 1) from Gus A. Stavros Center Common Sense Economics For Life (Part 2) from Gus A. Stavros Center Common Sense Economics For Life (Part 4) from Gus A. Stavros Center Governance of Disaster Risk from University of Extremadura Gestión del agua: Introducción al tratamiento de aguas residuales/ Water management: Introduction to the Treatment of Urban Sewagefrom University of Extremadura Ser ciudadano hoy from Pontifical Catholic University of Valparaíso ga077: 都市の災害リスクとその備え from Osaka City University Green transport. Vehículos verdes, conectados y automatizados from Antonio de Nebrija University Digital Culture/Clutter: Life and Death on the Net from University of Haifa EDUCATION & TEACHING Integrating Language Development and Content Learning in Math: Focus on Reasoning from Stanford Graduate School of Education Constructive Classroom Conversations: Improving Student-to-Student Interactions from Stanford Graduate School of Education Introduction to Online and Blended Teaching from University of Pennsylvania CSET Math Subtest II Exam Preparation Resource from University of California, Irvine CSET Math Subtest III Exam Preparation Resource from University of California, Irvine CSET Science Subtest I Exam Preparation Resource from University of California, Irvine University Studies for Student Veterans from Columbia University Making Teacher Education Relevant for 21st Century Africa from The Open University AP® Psychology — Course 0: Introduction from The University of British Columbia Blended Learning Essentials: Developing Digital Skills from University of Leeds Sistemas de información y ordenadores, Parte 4: Programación from Universitat Politècnica de València DTransform101 — D-TRANSFORM: University Strategies in the Digital Age from Politecnico di Milano Educar para los nuevos medios: competencia mediática para docentesfrom Universidad de Cantabria Teaching Statistics Through Inferential Reasoning from Friday Institute Teaching Foundational Reading Skills from Friday Institute Researching learners’ experiences and uses of technology using action research from Oxford Brookes University (K-12/HE) Implementing UDL on Canvas from University of Tennessee Tinkering Fundamentals: Circuits from Exploratorium Tinkering Fundamentals: Motion and Mechanisms from Exploratorium Algoritmi quotidiani from University of Urbino Making Apps in Your Classroom, Now! from University of Urbino Coding in Their Classrooms, Now! from University of Urbino Algorithms in Your Classroom, Now! from University of Urbino College Readiness (FL17) — Reading, Writing and Math from Broward College Criterios para la Gestión y el Aseguramiento de la Calidad en la Educación Superior from Universidad de Chile Teaching Online: Reflections on Practice from Kirkwood Community College How to survive the first weeks at ATGM (Avans) from Avans University of Applied Sciences Hoe overleef ik de eerste weken bij de ATGM (Avans) from Avans University of Applied Sciences Gamification in educazione: nuove strade per apprendere! from University of Florence El profesor del siglo XXI from Pontifical Catholic University of Valparaíso TIC en la docencia from Universidad CES HEALTH & MEDICINE Interprofessional Education for 21st Century Care from Stanford University Staying Fit from Stanford University The Oral Cavity: Portal to Health and Disease from University of Pennsylvania Epidemiology in Public Health Practice from Johns Hopkins University Diagnosing Health Behaviors for Global Health Programs from Johns Hopkins University Patient Safety and Quality Improvement: Developing a Systems View (Patient Safety I) from Johns Hopkins University The People, Power, and Pride of Public Health from Johns Hopkins University Sleep Deprivation: Habits, Solutions, and Strategies from University of Michigan 大学生瑜伽 from Peking University The Science of Health Care Delivery from Arizona State University Introduction to Public Health Engineering in Humanitarian Contextsfrom École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne Causes of Human Disease: Transmitting and Fighting Infection from University of Leeds Causes of Human Disease: Exploring Cancer and Genetic Disease from University of Leeds Causes of Human Disease: Nutrition and Environment from University of Leeds Causes of Human Disease: Understanding Causes of Disease from University of Leeds Causes of Human Disease: Understanding Cardiovascular Disease from University of Leeds Fixing Healthcare Delivery 2.0: Advanced Lean from University of Florida Health Concepts in Chinese Medicine from The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology Creating Moments of Joy for People with Alzheimer’s from Purdue University Understanding Depression and Low Mood in Young People from University of Reading Clinical Biosafety Awareness for Public Health Professionals from Emory University Intermediate Level Biosafety Training for Public Health Professionalsfrom Emory University Schizophrenia from Wesleyan University 食品安全與風險分析(Food Safety&Risk Analysis) from National Taiwan University Viruses & How to Beat Them: Cells, Immunity, Vaccines from Tel Aviv University End-of-Life Care for People with Dementia from University of East Anglia The Role of Personal Assistants in Disability Support from University of East Anglia Managing Change in a Healthcare Environment from University of East Anglia Clinical Supervision: Teaching and Facilitating Learning from University of East Anglia Using Personalized Medicine and Pharmacogenetics from University of East Anglia Using Infection Control to Combat Antimicrobial Resistance from University of East Anglia Youth Mental Health: Helping Young People with Anxiety from University of East Anglia Clinical Supervision: Assessing and Providing Feedback from University of East Anglia Introduction to Translational Science from University of Rochester Introduction to Health Technology Assessment from University of Glasgow Fundamentos de la Seguridad del Paciente from Universidad de Cantabria El aula inclusiva hoy en día. Cómo afrontar el Trastorno del Espectro Autista y las Altas Capacidades from Universitat Jaume I Young People and their Mental Health from University of Cambridge Jongeren en hun psychische gezondheid from University of Groningen Everyday Chinese Medicine from The Chinese University of Hong Kong Positive Psychiatry and Mental Health from The University of Sydney 口腔种植学 (Implant Dentistry) from The University of Hong Kong Life with Diabetes from Curtin University Control and Elimination of Visceral Leishmaniasis from London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine The Lancet Maternal Health Series: Global Research and Evidencefrom London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine Promoción del envejecimiento activo from Universidad Autónoma de Madrid Curso SMART-ASD: Conectando Tecnologías con Personas con Autismo from University of Bath ZEKİ-OTİSTİK: Otizmli Bireyleri Teknoloji Kaynaklarıyla Eşleştirmekfrom University of Bath Valencian SMART-ASD: Recursos Tecnològics Adequats per a les Persones amb Autisme from University of Bath Falling Down: Problematic Substance Use in Later Life from Middlesex University London Training healthcare teams in intercultural communication and patient safety from Middlesex University London Transitioning to Value-Based Care from The College of St. Scholastica Vona du Toit Model of Creative Ability from University of Northampton Unravelling solutions for Future Food problems from Utrecht University Maternity Care: Building Relationships Really Does Save Lives from Griffith University Digital Health for Cancer Management: Smart Health Technologies in Complex Diseases from Tapei Medical University ENGINEERING Structural Materials: Selection and Economics from Massachusetts Institute of Technology Mechanics of Deformable Structures: Part 1 from Massachusetts Institute of Technology Linear Circuits 2: AC Analysis from Georgia Institute of Technology Nanotechnology: A Maker’s Course from Duke University Systèmes d’Information Géographique — Partie 1 from École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne Systèmes d’Information Géographique — Partie 2 from École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne Enseignes et afficheurs à LED from École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne Electrical Engineering: Sensing, Powering and Controlling from University of Birmingham Introduction to FPGA Design for Embedded Systems from University of Colorado Boulder Control automático: La tecnología invisible from Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México Technical Report Writing for Engineers from The University of Sheffield Disegno tecnico industriale from University of Naples Federico II Industrial Biotechnology from University of Manchester Introduction to solar cells from Technical University of Denmark (DTU) Environmental Management & Ethics from Technical University of Denmark (DTU) Introducción a la ciencia de BIOmateriales from Universidad Politécnica de Madrid Software-Defined Radio 101 with RTL-SDR from Universidad Politécnica de Madrid Explorando la Energía Sustentable from Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile Construcción de Estructuras de Madera de modo tradicional from Universidad Politécnica de Madrid Introducción al Audio Digital from Universidad Politécnica de Madrid Curves in Engineering and Architecture/ Las Curvas en Ingeniería y Arquitectura from Universidad Politécnica de Madrid High Performance Finite Element Modeling from KTH Royal Institute of Technology Introduction to the Theory of Distributions and Applications from University of Pavia Fundamentos para la calificación de procedimientos de soldadura y soldadores from Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú ART & DESIGN A Global History of Architecture from Massachusetts Institute of Technology 浪漫主义时代的欧洲音乐 European Music in Romantic Period from Peking University Design Thinking for the Greater Good: Innovation in the Social Sectorfrom University of Virginia Getting Started with Agile and Design Thinking from University of Virginia Introdução à Guitarra from Berklee College of Music Improvisação no Jazz from Berklee College of Music Designing Synthesizer Sounds from Berklee College of Music Produção final do músico moderno from Berklee College of Music Improvisación de jazz from Berklee College of Music Navigate the Music Industry as an Independent Artist from Berklee College of Music Desenvolvendo sua musicalidade from Berklee College of Music Composição: Escrevendo a letra from Berklee College of Music Создание концепции интерфейса from Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology Прототипирование и тестирование интерфейса from Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology Introducción a la Producción Audiovisual from Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México Lánzate a la Innovación con Design Thinking from The Pontificia Universidad Javeriana Fundamentals of Communication Acoustics from RWTH Aachen University Applications in Communication Acoustics from RWTH Aachen University Fashion as Design from The Museum of Modern Art Inside Opera: Why Does It Matter? from King’s College London Dibujo en el aula: enseñar un lenguaje mágico from Universidad de Navarra Дизайн-методология: управление вдохновением (Design-methodology. Inspiration management) from Saint Petersburg State University Latin American Music: Translating Cultural Sensibilities from Massey University Learn Jazz Piano: I. Begin with the Blues from Goldsmiths University of London Kreativní práce s informacemi from Nostis New Media from Antonio de Nebrija University BUSINESS Influence from University of Pennsylvania Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR): A Strategic Approach from University of Pennsylvania Personnel Management for Public Libraries from University of Michigan Valuing Companies from University of Michigan Budgeting and Finance for Public Libraries from University of Michigan Accounting for Decision Making from University of Michigan Strategic Business Management — Macroeconomics from University of California, Irvine Strategic Business Management — Microeconomics from University of California, Irvine Introduction to Business for Analytics from Georgia Institute of Technology The Free Cash Flow Method for Firm Valuation from Columbia University Introduction to Corporate Finance from Columbia University Global Impact: Cultural Psychology from University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Accounting Analysis I: Measurement and Disclosure of Assets from University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Marketing in an Analog World from University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Entrepreneurship II: Practices and Approaches from University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Accounting Analysis II: Accounting for Liabilities and Equity from University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Entrepreneurship I: Principles and Concepts from University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Formal Financial Accounting from University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Global Impact: Business Ethics from University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Managing Public Money from The Open University Modern Empowerment in the Workplace from The Open University Business Foundations from The University of British Columbia Organizational Behaviour from The University of British Columbia Introduction to Accounting from The University of British Columbia Ethical Leadership Through Giving Voice to Values from University of Virginia Which markets to play in? A tool for entrepreneurs and innovatorsfrom École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne Qualitative Research from University of California, Davis Research Report: Delivering Insights from University of California, Davis Research Proposal: Initiating Research from University of California, Davis Quantitative Research from University of California, Davis Research Report: Delivering Insights from University of California, Davis Контекстная реклама. Google AdWords from Higher School of Economics Маркетинговая стратегия в digital среде (Digital marketing strategy) from Higher School of Economics Работа с клиентской базой и входящий маркетинг from Higher School of Economics Leading High-Performing Teams from University of Queensland Leading the Organization from University of Queensland Becoming an Effective Leader from University of Queensland Tourism and Travel Management from University of Queensland Leading in a Complex Environment from University of Queensland Electric Cars: Technology, Business, and Policy from Delft University of Technology Entrepreneurship for Global Challenges in Emerging Markets from Delft University of Technology Leadership In Practice from The University of Oklahoma Интернет-предпринимательство from Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology Бизнес-процессы, организационное проектирование, механизмы и системы управления from Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology Financial Accounting and Analysis from Indian Institute of Management Bangalore 商管研究中的賽局分析:通路選擇、合約制定與共享經濟 from National Taiwan University Legal Tech & Startups from IE Business School From Brand to Image: Creating High Impact Campaigns That Tell Brand Stories from IE Business School Entrepreneurship Strategy: From Ideation to Exit from HEC Paris Leadership Coaching through Turbulent Times: Playing with eFIREfrom Queensland University of Technology FinPerTutti101 — Finanza per tutti from Politecnico di Milano STR101: Strategy from Politecnico di Milano SFCW101 — Share Food, Cut Waste from Politecnico di Milano Clinical Supervision: Planning Your Professional Development from University of East Anglia Financial Management in Organizations from University System of Maryland Financial Decision Making from University System of Maryland Financial Accounting for Corporations from University System of Maryland Sustainable Business: Big Issues, Big Changes from University of Colorado System First Steps in Making the Business Case for Sustainability from University of Colorado System More on Change and Sustainability from University of Colorado System Six Sigma Tools for Analyze from University System of Georgia Six Sigma Advanced Define and Measure Phases from University System of Georgia Six Sigma Tools for Define and Measure from University System of Georgia Six Sigma Principles from University System of Georgia Six Sigma and the Organization (Advanced) from University System of Georgia Six Sigma Advanced Analyze Phase from University System of Georgia Six Sigma Advanced Improve and Control Phases from University System of Georgia Six Sigma Tools for Improve and Control from University System of Georgia Cálculo y compensación de la huella de carbono en organizacionesfrom Universitat Jaume I Decent Work in Global Supply Chains from Pennsylvania State University Aviation is Your Future from Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University Digital Competition in Financial Services from Copenhagen Business School FinTech and the Transformation in Financial Services from Copenhagen Business School Innovation Strategy: Developing Your Fintech strategy from Copenhagen Business School Industry 4.0: How to Revolutionize your Business from Hong Kong Polytechnic University The Economics of Agro-Food Value Chains from Technische Universität München (Technical University of Munich) Principles of Project Management from The College of St. Scholastica Liderando la transformación digital en las organizaciones from Universidad Politécnica de Madrid Leadership and Management from University of Northampton FRUTURA Technologies: Quality of Fruits (Tecnologías FRUTURA: Calidad de frutas) from Universidad Politécnica de Madrid Coaching in the Knowledge Era from Deakin University Психотехнологии работы с персоналом (Psychotechnologies of personnel management) from Saint Petersburg State University Innovation Strategy: Challenging the Usual Suspects from Université libre de Bruxelles Governance in Co-operatives from University of Saskatchewan Leading and Managing People-Centred Change from Durham University Managing Innovation from LUISS Логистика from St. Petersburg State Polytechnic University Budgeting essentials and development from Fundação Instituto de Administração Introduction to Interfaith Leadership from Dominican University Asset Pricing from University of Chicago Booth School of Business Big data Marketing from Universidad Autónoma de Occidente P2P en el sector turístico from Antonio de Nebrija University Fintech. 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  6. (About G. V. Martini - G. V. Martini works as a senior product manager for a software company and is a subdeacon in the Orthodox Church. He and his family attends St. Innocent Antiochian Orthodox Church in Everson, Washington) October 10, 2017 · G. V. Martini Editor’s Note: This article is part of an October 2017 series of posts on the Reformation and Protestantism written by O&H authors and guest writers marking the 500th anniversary of the nailing of Martin Luther’s 95 theses to the church door at Wittenberg on October 31, 1517. Articles are written by Orthodox Christians and discuss not just the Reformation as a historical event but also the spiritual heritage that descended from it. December, 1524. A French wool carder named Jean Leclerc inconspicuously removes a bull of Pope Clement VII from the doors of the cathedral in Meaux. The bull promised indulgences, but Leclerc would not have it. In its place, he offered a rendering of Clement as the Antichrist. He was soon found out, sentenced to a brutal and public lashing after a short trial in Paris. And in March of 1525 he received his punishment, being thereafter exiled from his home. But this did not deter Leclerc from future trouble making. In the town of Metz, he continued his trade as a wool carder. For a while, he kept his contrary views to himself. But eventually, Jean found an opportunity to make a statement. He decided that on the occasion of the next holy procession to a shrine, he would make a definitive stand. The night before the procession was scheduled to take place, Leclerc took all of the icons and relics at the shrine and destroyed them. The next day, worshipers were obviously in shock. Leclerc was discovered and arrested for his actions, being immediately sentenced to death. On July 22, 1525, tortured alive for all to see, he reportedly spoke in a calm voice: “Their idols are silver and gold, the work of men’s hands.” Leclerc is but one example of the radicalization of Protestant Christians in sixteenth century France. Perhaps most well-known are the Huguenots and the bloody Protestant-Catholic wars that persisted to a climactic St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre in 1572. And while torturing people to death for their religious beliefs is not something any of us would either condone or accept, the high stakes during this period of history make it clear there were passionate, and deeply held beliefs on either side. But where did this anger come from? Why were common folk in France and other parts of Europe so suddenly angry at the very sight of images and relics? Calvin and the French Influence While he was forced to leave France by 1534, humanist and student of the law John Calvin published his first edition of Institutes of the Christian Religion in 1536, dedicating it to the king of France. And in 1539, the first Synod of Paris officially sought to organize the Protestant Church in France as a “Calvinist” one. Absent or not, Calvin and his theology were at the heart of the Protestant movement both in France and elsewhere in the sixteenth century. Throughout his magnum opus, Calvin writes on a number of theological topics. Divided into four books, the eleventh chapter of his first volume deals specifically with the issue of sacred images or icons. Being so influential over Christianity in France, his words carried substantial weight. And while Calvin would later condemn the violent and public acts of iconoclasm (much like Luther), this did not prevent him from holding a pointedly negative view regarding their use both within the Christian church and in the private devotions of Christians. As Orthodox Christians, we obviously hold icons to be holy and important objects. They are “windows into heaven,” as some have put it, and are a real way for us to be connected in the great communion of the Saints. They bridge the apparent divide between heaven and earth; between the heavenly eternity and the mutable present. And so, on this monumental anniversary of the Reformation, I thought it might be prudent to examine what Calvin himself had to say about icons and then consider what we as Orthodox Christians believe. Public execution and torturing those who disagree with us is not the answer—as I’m sure we can all agree—but if these matters were so serious in the sixteenth century, they are no less serious today. Theology is important, and something as seemingly innocent as the images of Saints deserves a serious examination—and a serious response—when charges of idolatry or heresy are made. All Images Are Idols? Calvin first argues from the standpoint that we are forbidden by scripture to make any depiction or pictorial representation of God (Institutes of the Christian Religion 1.11.1). Following the instructions given to Moses, we should not make “… an idol nor a likeness of anything, whatever is in the heaven above and whatever is in the earth below and whatever is in the waters under the earth.” And before these objects we must not “bow down” or “worship” (Exodus 20:4–5). This seems relatively straightforward, until one considers the implication and the actual intended message. As Orthodox Christians, we wholeheartedly agree that the invisible God, who is immaterial and uncircumscribable, cannot be depicted. Even if we wanted to, we could not accurately or faithfully represent God the Father. But who we have in the Incarnation is the “express image” (Heb. 1:3) of God the Father, the “icon of the invisible God” (Col. 1:15). In Jesus Christ we see God, and in his Incarnation, God reveals himself to us. While the Father and Spirit are both formless and invisible (1 Tim. 1:17; Heb. 11:27; 1 John 4:20), the Person of the Son is revealed to us in the God-Man Jesus Christ: “No one has ever seen God; the only Son, who is in the bosom of the Father, he has made him known” (John 1:18). And so as Calvin laments a straw-man of false idols made from stone and silver (1.1.1), the Orthodox Christian need only reply that we are receiving and venerating the image of God he himself has given to us. If making an image of Jesus Christ is “superstitious” or “falsehood,” the first violation belongs to God himself. Calvin goes on to reinforce his argument by citing the example of Moses hiding in the rock (1.11.2), yet this is obviously a pre-Incarnational example of the immaterial God being hidden from our eyes. In Christ, we need no longer turn away, for God has given us a face to behold. Images and Statues Contrary to Scripture Following on his previous point, Calvin suggests that the very idea of images or forms depicting the invisible God is contrary to scripture. How dare anyone “confer God’s honor upon idols” (1.11.4)? For Calvin, scripture clearly associates superstitions with being the “works of men’s hands,” and not from God. However, every example Calvin provides from the old covenant is an example of God’s people worshiping other gods or demons, not the one, true God. As Orthodox Christians, we must also guard against superstition, and ensure that our veneration of icons and relics is pointed towards the one, true God. We must remember that our hope is in him and not any material thing. But to reject something good and holy just because it has potential for abuse would be, as Martin Luther himself once argued, to abolish the sky, food, and everyone we hold dear. Images Make Bad Teachers Next, Calvin reflects on the words of Pope Gregory the Great, who once wrote to Serenus, Bishop of Marseilles regarding an act of iconoclasm. Apparently, Christians in Marseilles were worshiping images and so the local clergy had them destroyed and removed from their churches. But Gregory rebukes Serenus and his fraternity for this act, explaining that of course they should not be worshiped (“adored”)—which is due to God alone—but are to remain in the churches so those “ignorant of letters may at least read by looking at the walls what they cannot read in books” (Letter 105). But to Calvin, images are not useful for instruction at all, especially when compared with books. Whatever can be learned from images is “futile” and “false” (1.11.5), an opinion he holds to be in line with the Prophets themselves. To this point Calvin returns in several more instances throughout the chapter (e.g. 1.11.7, 1.11.12). But is this really the case? It seems possible Calvin was especially insistent on this point because a good portion of the Roman statuary and images of Saints in his day were influenced by a more Renaissance style (1.11.7). He notes that even some of these images were inappropriate for church, due to how they were dressed or positioned. Leaving that bit aside, how should Orthodox Christians respond to this historical (and scriptural) example? Orthodox Christians do not approve the adoration or “worship” of icons, which should only be offered to the Holy Trinity. We do not worship icons as idols but rather pay them respect, as we might kiss the precious photograph of a loved one, or as an American citizen might salute the American flag. We are not worshiping the paper of a photograph or the fabric of a flag, but are rather paying respect and affection (“service” or δουλεία) to their prototype. We affirm the words of St. Gregory the Great that any abuse or superstitions related to icons and relics should be condemned. In fact, the Church did this very thing during the deliberations of the Seventh Ecumenical Council. The letter to Serenus is not an opposing, patristic voice to the proper use of icons. St. Gregory stands firmly in the same tradition as Orthodox Christians to this day. Gregory’s belief—contra Calvin—that icons could not only instruct the illiterate, but also lead men of all ages and educations to a proper contemplation of and encounter with the Divine, was a belief shared by many fathers of the Church. St. John of Damascus once wrote that “we are led by perceptible icons to the contemplation of the divine and spiritual” (PG 94:1261a). St. Gregory of Nyssa remarked that he could not see an icon of Abraham with Isaac “without tears” (PG 46:572). And finally, the Seventh Ecumenical Council reflects on Nyssa’s tears: “If to such a Doctor the picture was helpful and drew forth tears, how much more in the case of the ignorant and simple will it bring compunction and benefit?” (NPNF2 Vol. 14, p. 539). Images Reflect a Later Corruption of the Church Calvin also suggests that icons and statues were an abuse not found in the early Church. He claims that “for about five hundred years, during which religion was still flourishing, and a purer doctrine thriving, Christian churches were commonly empty of images” (1.11.13). And while he does not expand on this point to a great extent, the insinuation is commonly held by enough authorities throughout the Reformation that it warrants a brief response. By archaeology alone, we know today that images and pictorial representation were inextricably linked with the worship and piety of the earliest Christians. The catacombs of Italy, for example, make this plain for anyone to see. The relics of martyrs were routinely placed beneath Eucharistic altars, with images of Mary, Saints, and Christ with his disciples on the walls and ceilings around those partaking of the most holy of Christian mysteries. And in Syria, we have the amazing house church of Dura Europos, a place with iconography in the Baptistry and place of worship (not to mention a nearby Jewish synagogue with much of the same). There is also very little to suggest in the writings of the Church fathers that iconography, the veneration of icons and relics, or their placement in churches was any sort of later “corruption” or invention. Instead, we see a continual strain of support and respect for their proper usage, and the ultimate vindication of iconodules in the eighth century’s Second Council of Nicaea. “Childish” Arguments of the Seventh Ecumenical Council Calvin next turns his attention to the Second Council of Nicaea, held near the great city of Constantinople in the year 787. He laments that “a wicked Proserpine named Irene” was responsible for the Council dictating that images in church “should be worshiped” (1.11.14). Much like the Franks before him, Calvin is utterly impaired in his evaluation of this Ecumenical Council due to a poorly (mis-)translated Latin edition. He in fact references the text of Charlemagne in this very section. Instead of an orthodox nuance between veneration and adoration (or “worship”), he sees an assembly of bishops and priests arguing for the worship of icons as if they were God himself. Unfortunately, most of Calvin’s evaluation of this event is based on the misleading fiction of the Carolingians, who had political—not theological—reasons for wishing to overturn and ignore the conclusions of this Council. That said, it is worth pointing out that the Ecumenical Council does not promote the worship of images as God, and goes to great lengths to promote their proper and orthodox use. All scriptural arguments made in their deliberations (e.g. from Gen. 28:18, 47:10,31; Ps. 44:13; 98:5,9 LXX; Heb. 11:21) are ignored by Calvin, being merely dismissed outright as treating Scripture “childishly” and “foully” (1.11.15). And so really, since Calvin fails to present any substantial or meaningful argument outside of a false translation of the Council and ignoring the actual arguments made therein—including from scripture—there is not much more to be said on our part. I do find it ironic that a man so passionate about all theology being based upon the scriptures is so quick to avoid an interaction with them and the holy fathers of this Council. Misquoting and Misrepresenting Augustine The final area we’ll cover is Calvin’s citations of Augustine as a supporter of his aniconic position. Here again Calvin assumes that the earlier, more pure Christians would’ve obviously rejected images as impious and idolatrous. They certainly saw in images “no usefulness” (1.11.13). He then cites Augustine as an agreeable authority. Calvin writes: However, if these letters of Augustine are read in context, it becomes immediately clear that the Bishop of Hippo has in mind the false idols of other religions. For example: In other words, idols and the veneration of false gods or “demons” are of course to be rejected, because these other religions are parroting the true worship and liturgy of Christianity. They are using our forms for the worship of a false deity. And for Augustine, the offerings and prayers of our Christian liturgy—including images—are “true religion,” when done according to the traditions of the Church (and when offered to the one, true God). Later, Augustine emphasizes: Far from “the work of men’s hands,” Augustine speaks of “divine authority” in contrast to “human presumption.” Calvin’s appeals to Augustine on the subject of icons and relics is much like his appeal to the minutes of the Second Council of Nicaea: they are appeals based on both fiction and misrepresentation. Concluding Thoughts So what can Orthodox Christians take away from all of this? First, it must be noted that there is much we hold in common with our Reformation brothers and sisters. Not everything that took place during the Reformation, and especially during the Magisterial Reformation, was in vain or without justification. The Western church of that era was certainly one in need of reform and correction, and we must remember that figures such as Martin Luther were not necessarily setting out to create a new church in their own image, but rather reform the church from within. In some cases, the latter meant appeals to the worship, theology, and practices of the “Greek Christians,” as with both Luther and the later Tübingen theologians. Second, it may be possible that some of Calvin’s arguments or positions on the issue of images and relics was excessively influenced by both bad translations and the abuses of the Western church in his day. For the former, we may give him the benefit of the doubt to some degree—though this is more difficult in the case of his use of Augustine’s letters. For the latter, we likely agree to a certain extent on the impropriety of superstition and misuse when it comes to both images and relics. However, Eastern Christians are not entirely without blame in terms of abuses, as (for instance) the Patriarchate of Constantinople was known to (in the eighteenth century) offer indulgences—though this was isolated and not a widespread or accepted practice elsewhere in the Church. Finally, we must also stand firm in our own beliefs related to iconography, as this is not some optional or secondary aspect of our beliefs as Orthodox Christians. This was made plain both during the first wave of Byzantine iconoclasm at the Seventh Ecumenical Council and in the ninth century by authorities such as Theodore the Studite. For example, the Studite writes: “If anyone should say that, when the image of Christ is displayed, it is sufficient neither to honor nor to dishonor it, thus refusing it the honor of relative veneration, he is a heretic.” As Orthodox Christians, it is not enough to take a fence-sitting stance on this issue, as we believe the very doctrine of the Incarnation is at stake. And so on this we depart, willfully, from our Reformed friends (and from the counter-arguments of the Carolingian Libri Carolini). It is also worth noting that the defense of icons and their proper veneration was not entirely a Byzantine affair. No, the Church was rather united on this point, even outside the confines of the Second Council of Nicaea or the ninth century in Constantinople. For a more Western or Roman Catholic perspective, one need only reference the Councils of Rome in 727 and 731, the Council of Gentilly in 767, and the Council of the Lateran in 769. In the veneration of icons, Orthodox Christians see an importance that transcends even our best or most elaborate written arguments. In the Incarnation, God has made himself known to us. He could be seen, felt, and heard. And through his friends, our Saints and Fathers, we see what it means to act, live, and love like Christ. We are provided examples of how to mold our own lives to be patterned after him. We pay honor to them, because they have imaged Christ to us. We follow in their footsteps because they have sought to follow in the footsteps of our God and Savior. And so we chant on every Sunday of Orthodoxy a refrain that has deep meaning and significance for every Orthodox Christian—a staunch reminder that the veneration of icons is no mere secondary concern or the imaginations of human presumption:
  7. Danas je, kao sto je i najavljeno, izasao novi - i ovaj put veliki - zvanicni trailer, pa stoga otvaram i temu. ...
  8. Saudi Arabia accidentally prints textbook showing Yoda sitting next to the king The founding of the United Nations was a historic moment that saw leaders from across the planet join together to commit to a more peaceful world. But most historians don’t remember the Jedi master Yoda being among them. The Saudi government is scrambling to withdraw a history textbook that accidentally included a doctored photograph of King Faisal sitting next to the little green Star Wars character. The picture was supposed to illustrate a section on the King’s rule but somehow the book’s editors used a version that showed Yoda perched next to the monarch as he signed the UN charter. “The Ministry of Education regrets the inadvertent error”, said Ahmed al-Eissa, the Saudi education minister. “The ministry has began printing a corrected copy of the decision and withdrawing the previous versions, and has formed a legal committee to determine the source of the error and to take appropriate action”. The black-and-white photograph of Faisal and Yoda is the work of a 26-year-old Saudi artist named Abdullah al-Sheri. “I am the one who designed it, but I am not the one who put it in the book,” he told the New York Times. Mr al-Sheri goes by the nickname Shaweesh and the picture was part of a series that showed film characters discreetly added to photographs of major moments in Arab history. One image shows Darth Vader standing behind Lawrence of Arabia and the king of Iraq at the Paris peace conference in 1919, which divided up much of the Middle East. Another has a young Arab boy looking down at Captain America from the back of a truck. Mr al-Sheri said that he paired up the king and Yoda because both were intelligent and because Yoda’s green skin and green lightsaber matched the green of the Saudi flag. “He was wise and was always strong in his speeches”, Mr. Shehri said of the king. “So I found that Yoda was the closest character to the king. And also Yoda and his light saber – it’s all green”. He only became aware that his picture had found its way into a textbook when his mother, who is a teacher, texted him after seeing a copy. “I meant no offense to the king at all”, he told the New York Times.
  9. Prošlog leta istraživači Međunarodnog monetarnog fonda su okončali dugu i gorku debatu o „neoliberalizmu“: priznali su da postoji. Trojica visoko rangiranih ekonomista pri MMF-u, organizacije poznate po opreznosti, objavili su članak u kom dovode u pitanje koristi neoliberalizma. Time su okončali predstavu o ovoj reči kao običnoj političkoj izmišljotini ili terminu bez analitičkog potencijala. Članak je oprezno prozvao „neoliberalnu agendu“ za sprovođenje mera deregulacije u ekonomijama širom sveta, za nasilno otvaranje nacionalnih tržišta ka trgovini i kapitalu, kao i za zahtev vladama da se same smanje kroz mere štednje i privatizacije. Termin „neoliberalizam“ se koristi od 1930-ih; oživljen je ponovo da bi opisao sadašnju politiku – tačnije, opseg ideja koje ova politika odobrava. U periodu posle finansijske krize 2008. godine, koristio se da ukaže na odgovornost za debakl – ne određene političke partije, već establišmenta koji je svoj autoritet prepustio tržištu. U slučaju demokrata u SAD i laburista u Ujedinjenom Kraljevstvu, ovo prepuštanje se opisuje kao groteskna izdaja principa. Kritika glasi da su Bil Klinton i Toni Bler napustili tradicionalne vrednosti levice, naročito obaveze prema radnicima, u korist globalne finansijske elite i javnih politika od kojih su i sami imali koristi. Posledica je poguban porast nejednakosti. Tokom nekoliko prethodnih godina debata se zaoštravala, termin „neoliberalizam“ je postao retoričko oružije za one levo od centra da inkriminišu sve koji su desno u odnosu na njih na političkom spektru. (Nije ni čudo što centristi tvrde da je u pitanju besmislena uvreda: kritika se odnosi najviše na njih.) Međutim, „neoliberalizam“ je više od umesne opaske. Na određeni način on predstavlja i naočari kroz koje gledamo svet. Pogledajte kroz naočari neoliberalizma i jasno ćete videti kako su politički mislioci koje su uvažavali Tačer i Regana doprineli oblikovanju društva kao univerzalne tržnice (a ne, na primer, polisa, javne sfere ili porodice) i ljudskih jedinki kao mašina za obračunavanje profita i gubitaka (a ne nosilaca božje milosti ili nosilaca neotuđivih prava i dužnosti). Naravno da su cilj bili slabljenje države blagostanja i privrženosti punoj zaposlenosti, smanjenje poreza i deregulacija. Međutim, „neoliberalizam“ označava nešto više od tipičnog desničarskog spiska lepih želja. To je bio način organizovanja socijalne realnosti i promišljanja našeg statusa kao individua. Ako nastavite da gledate kroz ove naočari videćete da je tržište ljudski izum, ništa manje od države blagostanja. Videćete koliko temeljno smo podstaknuti da o sebi mislimo kao o vlasnicima sopstvenih talenata i inicijative, sa kojom lakoćom smo instruisani da se takmičimo i prilagodimo. Videćete u kojoj meri je jezik koji se ranije služio prostim izrazima da opiše robna tržišta (konkurencija, savršena informacija, racionalno ponašanje) sada primenjen na celo društvo u toj meri da je prodro u sve pore naših privatnih života, i kako se trgovački stav prepliće sa svim oblicima samoizražavanja. Ukratko, „neoliberalizam“ nije samo ime za politike naklonjene tržištima, ili za kompromise koje je finansijski kapitalizam napravio sa propalim socijaldemokratskim strankama. To je ime za premisu koja je tiho postala glavni regulator naših praksi i uverenja: kompeticija je jedini legitimni princip organizovanja ljudske aktivnosti. Malo pre nego što je neoliberalizam dobio sertifikat o postojanju, i malo pre nego što je licemerje tržišta postalo očigledno, populisti i autoritarijanci su došli na vlast. U SAD je Hilari Klinton, tipična neoliberalna zloća, izgubila od čoveka koji je bar znao da se pretvara da mrzi slobodnu trgovinu. Da li to znači da su naočari sada beskorisne? Mogu li nam na bilo koji način pomoći da shvatimo šta nije u redu sa britanskom i američkom politikom? Najgrublji mogući oblici nacionalnog identiteta su oživljeni u borbi protiv snaga globalne integracije. U kakvoj su vezi ti militantni parohijalizmi bregzita u Britaniji i trampizma u Americi, sa neoliberalnom racionalnošću? Postoji li ikakva veza između svojeglavog i tupavog predsednika i beskrvnog uzora efikasnosti znanog kao slobodno tržište? Nije stvar samo u tome da slobodno tržište proizvodi mali broj pobednika i ogromnu armiju gubitnika koji se, tragajući za osvetom, okreću Bregzitu i Trampu. Od početka je postojala neizbežna veza između utopijskog ideala slobodnog tržišta i distopijske sadašnjice u kojoj smo se zatekli; između tržišta kao jedinstvenog stvaraoca vrednosti i čuvara sloboda, i našeg pada u svet postistine i iliberalizma. Pokretanje debate o neoliberalizmu sa mrtve tačke počinje, po mom mišljenju, sa ozbiljnim razmatranjem kumulativnih efekata neoliberalizma na sve nas, nezavisno od naših ideoloških opredeljenja. Ovo podrazumeva povratak njegovim korenima, koji nemaju ništa sa Bilom ili Hilari Klinton. Jednom je postojala grupa ljudi koji su sebe ponosno nazivali neoliberalima. Oni su imali ambiciju da izvrše temeljnu revoluciju u mišljenju. Najistaknutiji među njima Fridrih Hajek nije smatrao da omeđava novu poziciju na političkom spektru, da opravdava bezobrazno bogate, niti da se vrzma na rubovima mikroekonomije. Mislio je da rešava problem modernog doba: problem objektivnosti znanja. Za Hajeka, tržišta nisu samo omogućavala razmenu dobara i usluga – ona su otkrivala istinu. Kako je ova ambicija postala svoja suprotnost – glavolomna mogućnost da, zahvaljujući nepromišljenom veličanju slobodnog tržišta, istina u potpunosti nestane iz javnog života? *** Hajek je 1936. godine opisao rađanje Velike ideje kao trenutak „iznenadnog prosvetljenja“ – bio je ubeđen da je otkrio nešto novo. Pisao je: „Kako je moguće da kombinacija fragmenata znanja koji postoje u različitim umovima proizvede rezultate koji bi, da su povezivani sa namerom, zahtevali um koji nijedna individualna osoba ne poseduje?“ Ovo nije bila tehnička beleška o kamatnim stopama ili deflacionim padovima. Ovo nije bila reakcionarna polemika protiv kolektivizma ili države blagostanja. Ovo je bio početak novog sveta. Hajek je razumeo da se tržište može opisati kao um. „Nevidljiva ruka“ Adama Smita nam je već dala modernu koncepciju tržišta: autonomna sfera ljudske aktivnosti i stoga potencijalni objekt naučnog znanja. Međutim, Smit je bio i do kraja života ostao osamnaestovekovni moralista. Mislio je da se tržište može opravdati samo u svetlu individualne vrline i strepeo je da društvo vođeno isključivo trgovačkim i ličnim interesima više uopšte neće biti društvo. Neoliberalizam je učenje Adama Smita lišeno ove strepnje. Pomalo je ironično što se Hajek smatra osnivačem neoliberalizma – stilom mišljenja koji sve svodi na ekonomiju – ako se uzme u obzir da je on bio sasvim osrednji ekonomista. Bio je tek mladi, malo poznati bečki tehnokrata u vreme kada je regrutovan na Londonsku školu ekonomiju (London School of Economics) kako bi zasenio tadašnju zvezdu u usponu – Džona Majnarda Kejnza sa Kembridža. Plan je pošao po zlu i Kejnz je do nogu potukao Hajeka. Kejnzova Opšta teorija zaposlenosti, kamate i novca, objavljena 1936. godine, dočekana je kao remek-delo. Dominirala je javnom diskusijom, naročito među mladim engleskim ekonomistima na početku karijere. Za njih je briljantni, energični i dobro društveno pozicionirani Kejnz bio beau idéal. Do kraja Drugog svetskog rata mnogi poznati zastupnici slobodne trgovine su bili preobraćeni Kejnzovim načinom mišljenja, priznajući da država može da ima ulogu u organizaciji moderne trgovine. Početna oduševljenost Hajekom je opala. Njegova neobična ideja da nečinjenje može da izleči ekonomsku depresiju bila je diskreditovana u teoriji i praksi. Kasnije je priznao da želi da njegova kritika Kejnza bude naprosto zaboravljena. Hajek je bio smešna pojava: visok, uspravan, sa teškim akcentom, u odelu od tvida, insistirao je da mu se formalno obraćaju „fon Hajek“, ali su ga zvali „gospodin Fluktuacija“ iza leđa. Godine 1936. bio je akademik bez portfolija i sa neizvesnom budućnošću. Ipak, mi danas živimo u Hajekovom svetu, kao što smo nekada živeli u Kejnzovom. Lorens Samers, Klintonov savetnik i bivši profesor Univerziteta u Harvardu, rekao je da je Hajekova koncepcija sistema cena kao uma „prodorna i originalna ideja poput ideje mikroekonomije u dvadesetom veku“ i da je to „najvažnija lekcija koju možemo da naučimo iz kurseva ekonomije danas“. Ovo je potcenjivanje. Kejnz nije izazvao ili predvideo hladni rat, ali su njegove ideje pronašle put u svaki segment hladnoratovskog doba. Na isti način su Hajekove ideje utkane u svaki segment sveta posle 1989. godine. Hajekovski pogled na svet je totalan: to je način strukturiranja celokupne realnosti po modelu ekonomske konkurencije. Početna pretpostavka je da su gotovo sve (ako ne i sve) ljudske aktivnosti oblik ekonomskih kalkulacija, i da kao takve mogu da budu asimilovane u osnovne koncepte kao što su bogatstvo, vrednost, razmena, koštanje – a posebno cene. Cene su način za efikasno raspoređivanje oskudnih resursa, koje na osnovu potrebe i korisnosti, određuju ponuda i potražnja. Da bi sistem cena efikasno funkcionisao, tržišta moraju da budu slobodna i takmičarska. Od kako je Smit zamislio ekonomiju kao autonomnu sferu, postojala je mogućnost da tržište nije samo jedan deo društva, već društvo u celini. U takvom društvu, potrebno je samo da ljudi prate sopstvene interese i da se takmiče za ograničena dobra. Kroz takmičenje, pisao je sociolog Vil Dejvis, „postaje moguće razlučiti ko i šta ima neku vrednost“. Vrednosti koje svaka osoba koja poznaje istoriju vidi kao neophodnu prepreku tiraniji i eksploataciji – prosperitetnu srednju klasu i javnu sferu, slobodne institucije, univerzalno pravo glasa, slobodu savesti, okupljanja, veroispovesti i štampe, priznavanje urođenog dostojanstva – ne nalaze se u Hajekovom učenju. Hajek je u neoliberalizam ugradio pretpostavku da tržište obezbeđuje sve neophodne zaštite protiv jedine prave političke opasnosti: totalitarizma. Da bi sprečila totalitarizam, jedino što bi država trebalo da uradi je da održava tržište slobodnim. To je ono što neoliberalizam čini novim. U pitanju je ključna razlika u odnosu na starije poverenje u slobodno tržište i minimalnu državu, poznato pod imenom „klasični liberalizam“. U klasičnom liberalizmu trgovci jednostavno traže da ih „ostavimo na miru“ – laissez-nous faire. Neoliberalizam je prepoznao da država mora da bude aktivna u organizovanju tržišne ekonomije. Uslovi koji omogućavaju slobodno tržište moraju se izboriti političkom borbom, zbog čega država mora da se uspostavlja tako da stalno podržava slobodno tržište. To nije sve: svi aspekti demokratske politike, od glasanja do odluke političara, moraju se podvrgnuti čistoj ekonomskoj analizi. Donosilac zakona je u obavezi da se ne meša u ono što je samo po sebi već dovoljno dobro, tj. da ne remeti prirodne tokove tržišta. Na taj način, pod idealnim uslovima, država obezbeđuje fiksni, neutralni i univerzalni pravni okvir za spontano funkcionisanje tržišta. Svesno usmeravanje od strane vlade nikada ne može biti tako dobro kao „automatski mehanizam prilagođavanja“, tj. sistem cena koji ne samo što je efikasan, već maksimalizuje slobode ili prilike za ljude da naprave slobodan izbor u vezi sa svojim životom. Dok je Kejnz često putovao između Londona i Vašingtona, kreirajući posleratni poredak, Hajek je snuždeno sedeo u Kembridžu. Poslat je tamo za vreme ratnih evakuacija i žalio se da je okružen „strancima“, „svim vrstama istočnjaka“ i „Evropljanima skoro svih nacionalnosti, od kojih je samo šačica inteligentna“. Zaglavljen u Engleskoj, bez uticaja i poštovanja, Hajek je za utehu imao samo svoju Ideju – grandioznu ideju koja će jednog dana izmaći tlo pod nogama Kejnzu i svim ostalim intelektualcima. Prepušten sam sebi, sistem cena funkcioniše poput uma: tržište procenjuje ono što individua ne može da pojmi. Obraćajući mu se kao intelektualnom saborcu, američki novinar Valter Lipman je pisao Hajeku: „Nijedan um nikada nije razumeo društvo u celini… U najboljem slučaju um može da razume sopstvenu predstavu o društvu, koja je nepotpuna, i koja ima veze sa realnošću koliko senka sa čovekom.“ Ovo je grandiozna epistemološka tvrdnja: da je tržište način spoznaje koji radikalno prevazilazi kapacitete individualnog uma. Takvo tržište nije poput drugih ljudskih izuma kojima se može upravljati, već sila koju bi trebalo proučavati i podmirivati. Ekonomija prestaje da bude tehnika – kao što je Kejnz verovao – za postizanje poželjnih društvenih ciljeva, kao što su rast i finansijska stabilnost. Jedini društveni cilj je održavanje tržišta. U svom sveznanju tržište predstavlja jedini legitimni oblik saznanja pored koga svi ostali vidovi refleksije izgledaju parcijalni, u oba smisla te reči: mogu da shvate samo delić celine i zastupaju samo posebne interese. Individualno, naše vrednosti su lične, ili su samo gledišta; kolektivno, tržište ih konvertuje u cene, ili u objektivne činjenice. Posle neuspeha na LSE, Hajek više nikada nije imao stalno zaposlenje koje nije bilo plaćeno novcem korporativnih sponzora. Čak su ga i njegove konzervativne kolege sa Čikaškog univeziteta – svetskog epicentra libertarijanskog disidenstva 1950-ih – smatrale glasnikom reakcije, čovekom „desničarske provenijencije“ sa „desničarskim sponzorima“, kako je pisao jedan od njih. Sve do 1972. godine prijatelji su mogli da posećuju ostarelog Hajeka u Salcburgu, gde se utapao u samosažaljenju i uverenju da je sve radio uzalud. Niko nije mario za njegova dela. Bilo je, međutim, i naznaka nade: Hajek je bio omiljeni politički filozof Berija Goldvotera, a kako se pričalo i Ronalda Regana. A tu je bila i Margaret Tačer. Svakome ko je hteo da je sluša, Tačer je na sva usta hvalila Hajeka, obećavši da će sprovesti njegovu filozofiju slobodnog tržišta zajedno sa oživljavanjem viktorijanskih vrednosti: porodice, zajednice, marljivosti. Hajek se sastao sa Tačer 1975. godine, u momentu kada je ona imenovana za predvodnicu opozicije u Ujedinjenom Kraljevstvu i kada se pripremala da njegovu Veliku ideju izbavi iz zaborava istorije. Diskutovali su 30 minuta u Institutu za ekonomiju, u Ulici lorda Norta u Londonu. Posle sastanka osoblje Margaret Tačer je sa zebnjom upitalo Hajeka za mišljenje. Šta je mogao da kaže? Prvi put za 40 godina, Fridrik fon Hajek je u odsjaju moći video sliku o sebi koju je odavno gajio: sliku čoveka koji bi uskoro mogao da zbriše Kejnza i preobrazi svet. Odgovorio je: „Ona je prelepa.“ *** Hajekova Velika ideja i nije neka ideja – dok je ne uveličate preko svake mere. Organski, spontani, elegantni procesi koji, poput milion prstiju na Ploči duhova,1 koordinirano kreiraju inače neplanirane ishode. Primenjena na tržište (bilo da je reč o tržištu svinjetine ili terminskom tržištu kukuruza), ova ideja je skoro pa truizam. Može se dalje razviti da opiše kako tržišta dobara, rada i novca formiraju onaj deo društva koji nazivamo „ekonomija“. Ovo već nije tako banalno, ali je i dalje bezopasno: kenzijanac će rado prihvatiti ovaj opis. Ali šta ako napravimo još jedan korak i zamislimo celokupno društvo kao tržište? Što više proširujemo Hajekovu ideju, to ona postaje reakcionarnija i sve više sakrivena iza paravana naučne neutralnosti – i sve više omogućava ekonomistima da se povežu sa glavnim intelektualnim trendom koji je vladao u XVII veku. Uspon modernih nauka otvorio je pitanje šta znači biti čovek u svetu kojim rukovode zakoni prirode. Da li je čovek objekat u svetu, poput bilo kog drugog objekta? Izgleda da ne postoji način da se subjektivno i unutrašnje iskustvo priključi prirodi kakvom je vidi nauka – kao objektivnoj pojavi čije zakone otkrivamo posmatranjem. Sve je u posleratnoj političkoj kulturi išlo u korist Džona Majnarda Kejnza i proširenja uloge države u vođenju ekonomije. Na isti način je sve u posleratnoj akademskoj kulturi išlo u korist Hajekove Velike ideje. Pre rata su čak i najokoreliji desničari među ekonomistima smatrali tržište sredstvom da se postignu ograničeni ciljevi, da se efikasno preraspodele oskudni resursi. Od vremena Adama Smita iz sredine osamnaestog veka, do posleratnog vremena osnivača Čikaške škole, bilo je uobičajeno uverenje da se konačni ciljevi društva i života uopšte određuju van ekonomske sfere. Pitanja vrednosti se rešavaju politički i demokratski, a ne ekonomski – kroz moralnu refleskiju i argumentovanu javnu raspravu. Klasični moderni izraz ovog uverenja može se naći u eseju iz 1922. godine Etika i ekonomska interpretacija Frenka Najta, koji je stigao u Čikago dve decenije pre Hajeka. „Rezultati racionalne ekonomske kritike vrednosti odvratni su zdravom razumu“, pisao je Najt. „Čovek ekonomije je sebični, nemilosrdni predmet moralne osude.“ Punih dve stotine godina ekonomisti su se mučili da nađu mesto temeljnim vrednostima tržišnih društava van sfere sebičnih interesa i računica. Najt i njegove kolege Henri Simons i Džejkob Viner su se protivili Frenklinu D. Ruzveltu i njegovim njudilovskim tržišnim intervencijama. Osnovali su Univerzitet u Čikagu kao intelektualno rigorozan dom ekonomije slobodnog tržišta, kakav je ostao do današnjih dana. Međutim, Simons, Viner i Najt su započeli karijere pre nego što je neuporedivi prestiž atomskih fizičara privukao ogromne sume novca univerzitetima i podstakao posleratnu pomamu za „tvrdim“ naukama. Nisu se klanjali jednačinama i modelima, već su brinuli o nenaučnim pitanjima. Konkretno, brinuli su o pitanju vrednosti, koje je u potpunosti bilo odvojeno od pitanja cene. Nije samo reč o tome da su Simons, Viner i Najt bili manje dogmatski nastrojeni od Hajeka, ili više voljni da državi oproste oporezivanje ili javne troškove. Takođe, Hajek nije bio intelektualno superiorniji od njih. Reč je o tome da su oni polazili od principa da društvo i tržište nisu ista stvar, kao što ni cena nije isto što i vrednost. To učenje im nije obezbedilo mesto u istoriji. Hajek je bio taj koji nam je pokazao put iz beznadežnog stanja ljudske pristrasnosti do veličanstvene objektivnosti nauke. Hajekova Velika ideja je premostila jaz između naše subjektivne ljudske prirode i prirode uopšte. Iz toga je sledilo da bilo koja vrednost koja ne može da se izrazi kroz cenu, tj. ne predstavlja sud tržišta, postaje nesigurna – ništa više od pukog mišljenja, preferencije, narodnog verovanja ili sujeverja. Veliki čikaški ekonomista Milton Fridman je više nego bilo ko drugi, uključujući i Hajeka, doprineo da se vlade i političari priklone Hajekovoj Velikoj ideji. Pre toga je raskinuo sa dve stotine godina starom tradicijom, proglasivši ekonomiju „u načelu slobodnom od bilo kog moralnog stanovišta ili vrednosnog suda“, kao i „objektivnom naukom, na način na koji je fizika objektivna“. Stare vrednosti uma i moralna pravila su nesavršeni i predstavljaju „razlike oko kojih ljudi mogu samo da se glože“. Drugim rečima: postoji tržište, i postoji relativizam. *** Moguće je da su ljudska tržišta ljudske tvorevine najsličnije prirodi i da se, poput prirode, ne vode autoritetima i vrednostima. Međutim, primena Hajekove Velike ideje na svaki aspekt naših života negira ono što nas čini ljudima. Ono najljudskije kod ljudi, naš um i volju, prepušta algoritmima i tržištima, ostavljajući nas da poput zombija oponašamo svedene idealne ekonomske modele. Širenje Hajekove ideje i radikalno unapređenje sistema cena u neku vrstu društvenog sveznalaštva podrazumeva umanjivanje značaja naše individualne sposobnosti za razmenu dijaloga – sposobnosti da pružamo i procenjujemo opravdanja za svoje postupke i uverenja. Iz toga sledi da javna sfera – prostor gde obrazlažemo svoje mišljenje i osporavamo mišljenja drugih – prestaje da bude prostor argumentovane rasprave i umesto toga postaje tržište klikova, lajkova i retvitova. Internet su lični izbori uvećani algoritmom; pseudojavni prostor u kome odjekuju glasovi usađeni u naše glave. Umesto prostora za debatu kroz koju kao društvo napredujemo ka dogovoru, sada imamo povratno potvrđujući aparat banalno nazvan „tržište ideja“. Ono što na prvi pogled izgleda kao javno i smisleno, u stvari je produžetak naših postojećih gledišta, predrasuda i uverenja, dok su autoritet institucija i eksperata zamenjeni agregativnom logikom velikih baza podataka. Kada pristupimo svetu kroz polje za pretragu, dobijemo rezultate koji su, po rečima osnivača Gugla, rangirani od strane beskrajnog broja individualnih korisnika interneta koji funkcionišu kao tržište, neprestano i u realnom vremenu. Za razliku od fenomenalne korisnosti digitalnih tehnologija, ranija humanistička tradicija, koja je bila dominantna vekovima, uvek je pravila razliku između naših sklonosti i preferencija – želja koje se izražavaju na tržištu – i našeg kapaciteta da rasuđujemo o tim preferencijama, na osnovu kojeg formiramo i izražavamo svoje vrednosti. „Sklonost je možda najbolje definisati kao preferenciju oko koje se ne raspravljamo“, pisao je filozof i ekonomista Albert O. Hiršman. „Sklonosti oko kojih postoji rasprava, bilo sa drugima ili sa sobom, ipso facto prestaju da budu sklonosti i postaju vrednosti.“ Hiršman je pravio razliku između konzumerskog i kritičkog dela ličnosti. Tržište odražava preferencije koje su „osvešćene od strane ljudi koji kupuju dobra i usluge“. Međutim, ljudi takođe „imaju sposobnost da naprave otklon od ’osvešćenih’ želja, volje i preferencija, da se zapitaju da li zaista žele te želje i preferiraju te preferencije“. Mi zasnivamo naše ličnosti i identitete na osnovu ovog kapaciteta za rasuđivanje. Korišćenje individualnih moći rasuđivanja nazivamo razumom; kolektivno korišćenje ovih moći nazivamo javnom raspravom; korišćenje javne rasprave u svrhu izrade zakona i javnih politika nazivamo demokratijom. Kada obrazlažemo svoje postupke i uverenja, mi bivstvujemo: individualno i kolektivno, odlučujemo ko smo i šta smo. Sudeći prema logici Hajekove Velike ideje, ovi izrazi ljudskog subjektiviteta su beznačajni bez potvrde tržišta – kao što je Fridman rekao, oni nisu ništa drugo do relativizam, svaki izraz je dobar kao bilo koji drugi. Kada je jedina objektivna istina određena tržištem, sve druge vrednosti imaju status običnih gledišta i relativističkog praznoslovlja. Međutim, Fridmanov „relativizam“ je zamerka koja se može uputiti svakoj tvrdnji zasnovanoj na ljudskom razumu. To je besmislena opaska, jer su sve humanističke težnje „relativne“, za razliku od naučnih. Relativne su o odnosu na osobinu ličnosti da poseduje sposobnost za rasuđivanje i javnu potrebu za objašnjavanjem i razumevanjem čak i u slučajevima kada nemamo naučne dokaze. Kada prestanemo da rešavamo debate argumentovanom raspravom, njihove ishode rešavaju hirovi moćnika. Na ovom mestu se susreću neoliberalizam i politička noćna mora u kojoj živimo. „Daš čoveku jedan posao da obavi…“, glasi stara šala, a Hajekov grandiozni projekat, začet 30-ih i 40-ih godina, bio je osmišljen sa namerom da spreči nazadovanje u politički haos i fašizam. Međutim, njegova Velika ideja je oduvek bila nesreća koja čeka da se dogodi. Od početka je u sebi sadržala klicu onoga što je trebalo da spreči. Zasnivanje društva kao ogromnog tržišta vodilo je gubitku javnog života u korist prepirki oko pukih mišljenja, da bi se frustrirana javnost na kraju okrenula čvrstorukašima kao poslednjem pribežištu: oni mogu da reše inače nerazrešive probleme. *** Godine 1989. američki novinar je zakucao na vrata devedesetogodišnjeg Hajeka. Hajek je živeo u Frajburgu, u Zapadnoj Nemačkoj, u trospratnom apartmanu kuće građene u stucco stilu, u Uraštrase ulici. Seli su u osunčanu sobu čiji prozori su gledali na planine, a Hajek je, zbog upale pluća od koje se oporavljao, prebacio ćebe preko nogu. To više nije bio čovek koji se utapao u samosažaljenju zbog poraza od Kejnza. Tačer mu je upravo poslala pismo sa porukama trijumfa. Ništa što su Regan i ona postigli „ne bi bilo moguće bez vrednosti i ubeđenja koja su nas postavili na put i usadili ispravan osećaj za smer“. Hajek je bio zadovoljan sobom i optimističan u vezi sa budućnošću kapitalizma. Novinar je zapisao: „Hajek uviđa da mlađe generacije sve više uvažavaju tržište. Nezaposleni mladi protestuju danas u Alžiru i Rangunu ne u ime centralistički planirane države blagostanja već u ime prilike: prilike da slobodno kupuju i prodaju – džins, automobile, šta god – po bilo kojoj ceni koja odgovara tržištu“. Trideset godina kasnije možemo da kažemo da je Hajekova pobeda bez premca. Živimo u raju njegove Velike ideje. Što se više svet približava viziji idealnog tržišta sa savršenom konkurencijom, to se više uočavaju zakonitost i „naučnost“ u ponašanju ljudi kao gomile. Svakog dana, u svakom pogledu, sami težimo da sve više napredujemo kao raštrkani, tihi, anonimni kupci i prodavci – i niko više ne mora da nas podstiče na to! Svakog dana želju da budemo nešto više od običnih konzumenata gledamo sa nostalgijom ili je smatramo elitizmom. Ono što je počelo kao novi oblik intelektualnog autoriteta ukorenjenog u dosledni apolitički pogled na svet, sa lakoćom je gurnuto u ultrareakcionarnu politiku. Ekonomisti tvrde da ono što ne može da se kvantifikuje ne može ni da postoji, ali kako onda izmeriti ključne doprinose prosvetiteljstva, naime: kritički um, ličnu autonomiju i demokratsko upravljanje? Kada smo napustili um zbog njegove sramne subjektivnosti, um kao oblik istine, i na njegovo mesto postavili nauku kao jedinog sudiju stvarnosti i istine, kreirali smo prazninu koju je pseudonauka spremno popunila. Autoritet profesora, reformatora ili pravnika ne počiva na tržištu, već na humanističkim vrednostima kao što su odanost opštem dobru, savest ili težnja za pravdom. Puno pre nego što je Trampova administracija počela da ih ponižava, ove profesije su ostale bez značaja u eksplanatornim šemama koje nam ništa ne saopštavaju. Zasigurno postoji veza između njihove rastuće beznačajnosti i dolaska na vlast Trampa, oličenja kaprica, čoveka koji ne poseduje principe i uverenja koliko je potrebno da se načini koherentna ličnost. Čovek bez savesti, predstavnik potpunog odsustva uma, predvodi svet u pogrešnom pravcu. Kao svaki pametnjaković koji prodaje nekretnine na Menhetnu, Tramp zna znanje: njegove grehe tek treba da kazni tržište. Stephen Metcalf, Preveo Marko Sinđić
  10. Denying to the Grave (2016)

    Version 1.0.0

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    Психологија човјека и породице која се бави утицајем медија и корпорација на психичко и физичко здравље људи
  11. http://www.quizony.com/which-dwarf-from-snow-white-and-the-seven-dwarfs-are-you/index.html
  12. Version 1.0.0

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    Joseph A. Fitzmyer
  13. Šta reći za ovaj film? ja jedva čekam da ga gledam. http://www.imdb.com/title/tt2345759/
  14. Ukoliko ste zauzeti i ne želite da započnete vremenski zahtjevan proces gledanja nove serije, koji uključuje gledanje tri već objavljene epizode (koje u prosjeku traju oko 50 minuta) i iščekivanje novih epizoda narednih sedam sedmica, nemojte čitati dalje ovaj tekst! Ne, ozbiljno. Ne šalim se. Nakon svega što imam da napišem o ovoj seriji, neće biti opcija da je ne pogledate. Proglašena od strane kritičara “nenamjerno najrelevantnijom” serijom 2017. godine (prventsveno zbog političke klime u SAD), “The Handmaid’s Tale” dolazi kao pravo osvježenje na TV ekrane. Ukoliko patite od statistika i brojeva, serija trenutno na stranici IMDB ima rejting od 8.9/10, dok na stranici Rotten Tomatoes ima postotak od visokih 98%. Sa druge strane, ako vas zanimaju mišljenja kritičara, ona su gotovo isključivo pozitivna. Neke od najrelevantnijih kritika donosi Variety, koji je opisuje kao “uznemirujuću, impresivnu i užasno lijepu viziju previše bliskog distopijskog svijeta”, i The New York Times, koji koristiti epitete “nepokolebljivo, vitalno i zastrašujuće”. Na kraju, ukoliko vas zanima moje mišljenje, iz nekog razloga, ono jeste da je ova serija vizuelno jedna od najljepših ikad snimljenih, a priča je toliko uvjerljiva, zastrašujuća i relevantna da ćete je mrzjeti i voljeti u isto vrijeme. “The Handmaid’s Tale” je nova serija Hulu striming servisa, rađena po romanu Margaret Atvud (Margaret Atvud), u adaptaciji Brusa Milera (Bruce Miller) i same Margaret. Roman istog imena, Atvud je napisala 1985. godine, a i roman i serija prate priču o Ofred, ženi koja je primorana da živi u distopijskoj i totalitarističkoj državi Gilead, kojom vladaju hrišćanski fundamentalisti. Konkretnije rečeno, primorana je da živi u režimu gdje žene nemaju nikakva prava, ljudi su podijeljeni na kaste i bilo kakav oblik neposlušnosti se kažnjava smrću ili izgnanstvom u kolonije, tj. radne logore, u kojima zatvorenici čiste toksični otpad dok ne umru od posljedica izlaganja istom. Radnja romana se dešava oko 2005. godine, ali reference na Tinder i Uber je smještaju u sadašnje vrijeme. U ovom svijetu, fertilitet je drastično opao, pa su plodne žene poput Ofred smještene u kastu “službenica” (handmaids) – žena čija je jedina svrha u životu da rode djecu “komandirima vijernih” (Commander of the Faithful), vladajućoj kasti ovog režima. Sumirana u jedan pasus, radnja možda zvuči komplikovano, ali uz naraciju i flashback-ove, vrlo lako ćete uploviti u svijet koji je kreirala Margaret. Ono što je učinilo ovu seriju toliko relevantom jeste činjenica da je zbog trenutnog stanja političke scene u Americi ovo djelo fikcije realnije od onoga koliko smo spremni to da priznamo. Tvrditi da je stanje stvari kakvo je u ovoj priči nešto što bi moglo da se desi, svakako jeste nategnuto, ali brilijantno je što se postavljaju prava pitanja. Pitanja koja ukazuju na probleme i tjeraju na razmišljanje. Još jedna pohvalna stvar koju moram spomenuti jeste činjenica da u svijetu u kom su žene izgubile sva prava i muškarci upravljaju svojim i njihovim životima, te predstavljaju superiorna bića, muškarci nisu predstavljeni kao zli, već su, kao i svi ostali, i oni potčinjeni režimu u kom žive. Ova neobična priča praćena je i neuobičajenim vizuelnim stilom za jednu seriju. Kadrovi su filmični, pa se stiče dojam da gledate jedan veoma dug film, što nikako nije negativna karakteristika. Kinematografkinja i režiserka Rid Morano (Reed Morano) pobrinula se da stvori vizuelno veoma zanimljive tri epizode, miješajući jarke boje kostima sa bljedunjavim svijetom, koji podsjeća na onaj kakav smo mogli vidjeti, recimo, u Egersovom (Robert Eggers) ostvarenju “The Witch”, iz 2016. godine, čija je radnja smještena u 16. vijek. Osim Morano, na seriji su radila još četiri režisera, od kojih sada imamo velika očekivanja. Fenomenalnu glumačku postavu predvodi Elizabet Mos (Elisabeth Moss), koja se proslavila ulogom u seriji “Mad Men” i koja briljira od prve do zadnje minute sve tri (zasad objavljene) epizode. Pridružuju joj se, između ostalih, i Ivon Strahovki (Yvonne Strahovski, “Dexter”), Aleksis Bledel (Alexis Bledel, “Gilmore Girls”) i Samira Vajli (Samira Wiley, “Orange Is the new Black”), čineći zajedno izvanrednu, većinski žensku glumačku postavu. Kao i sve drugo na ovom svijetu, ni ova serija nije savršena, pa u nekim trenucima pribjegava senzacionalizmu, ali to je poprilično neizbježno, a i oprostivo u odnosu na sve dobre strane koje sam pobrojala. Ukoliko nekim čudnim spletom okolnosti još uvijek niste riješeni da pogledate “The Handmaid's Tale”, vjerujem da će nakon gledanja trejlera svaka sumnja nestati. Uživajte gledajući, ja svakako jesam. http://bosonoga.com/2017/05/02/nenamjerno-najvaznija-serija-2017-godine/
  15. Nakon velike obiteljske tragedije, Mack Phillips (Sam Worthington) pada u duboku depresiju, koja kod njega dovede do toga da se zapita o svojim najdubljim uvjerenjima. Suočavajući se sa vjerskom krizom, on dobiva misteriozno pismo koje ga poziva da dođe u napuštenu kolibu duboko u oregonskoj divljini. Unatoč svojim sumnjama, Mack odluči otputovati do kolibe, te putem susreće enigmatični trio stranaca koje predvodi žena zvana Papa (Octavia Spencer). Kroz ovo upoznavanje, Mack će uspjeti pronaći važne istine koje će transformirati njegov pogled na svoju tragediju i zauvijek promjeniti njegov život. Svako toliko pojavi se film u kojem glavni glumac, za kojeg smo prethodno mislili da jednostavno nije sposoban pružiti dobar nastup, preokrene svačija očekivanja i pruži gledateljima nešto uistinu predivno. Taj glumac ovoga je puta Sam Worthington. Iako će neki biti iznenađeni što je ovaj film zapravo vjerska priča, oni koji će biti spremni poslušati što im film želi reći, shvatiti će da film u kontekst stavlja neke od najljepših priča kršćanske mitologije. Sami film temeljen je na neočekivanom kršćanskom bestselleru istog imena kojeg je napisao kanadski autor William P. Young. No, gledajući film, uvidjet ćete da je mnogo stvari koje su u knjizi bile površno obrađene, zaista mnogo bolje odrađeno. Worthington glumi Macka, muža i oca koji je u velikoj depresiji nakon nestanka i ubojstva svoje najmlađe kćeri Missy. No, jednog popodneva, on pronađe pismo u svom sandučiću, koje ga poziva na sastanak u kolibi u kojoj je Missy ubijena. Nakon velikog promišljanja i flashback scene koja nam objašnjava kako je Missy nestala, Mack odluči odazvati se na potiv, a ono što naposlijetku pronađe u kolibi je susret za kojeg nikada nije mislio da će biti moguć. Najbolji dio filma svakako je Octavia Spencer i njena Papa. Njena umirujuća prisutnost daje veoma nježnu karakteristiku bogu koja savršeno paše u sveukupnu temu filma o gubitku, tuzi, a naposlijetku i liječenju rana. Spencer je nedavno postala jedna od najboljih glumica našeg vremena, a svoju titulu potvrđuje i nastupom u ovom filmu – svaka scena sa njom udiše nevjerojatnu količinu života u film. Najveći problem kojeg je ovaj film trebao prebroditi jest kako prezentirati prethodno spomenute teme, a da ih istovremeno prikaže kroz većinom neutralnu kršćansku leću. Mnogo Mackovih unutarnjih borbi naprosto nestaju dok on nastavlja razgovarati sa Papom, Isusom i Sarayu. A, iako to ima smisla ukoliko se Mack stvarno nalazi pred bogom, njegovi napreci na svojoj unutarnjoj mirnoći ne doimaju se uistinu zasluženima jer su jednostavno bačeni pred nas, a zatim veoma brzo riješeni na najbrži mogući način. “The Shack” je većinom prilično dobar film, pogotovo za one koji su spremni slušati i poistovjetiti se sa njegovom duhovnom, nadasve kršćanskom pričom. No, čak i oni koji ne dijele kršćanske ideale mogli bi u njemu pronaći nekoliko jednostavnih poruka o mudrosti koje bi svakome od nas mogle dobro doći, pogotovo u trenutnoj globalnoj situaciji u kojoj su ljudi sve manje i manje tolerantni prema nečemu drugačijem. U ovom slučaju, religija ne bi trebala biti odlučujući faktor na temelju kojeg ćete pružiti šansu ovom filmu. http://www.filmovita.com/the-shack-2016/
  16. The Benedict Option David Brooks MARCH 14, 2017 Faith seems to come in two personalities, the purist and the ironist. Purists believe that everything in the world is part of a harmonious whole. All questions point ultimately to a single answer. If we orient our lives toward this pure ideal, and get everybody else to, we will move gradually toward perfection. The ironists believe that this harmony may be available in the next world but not, unfortunately, in this one. In this world, the pieces don’t quite fit together and virtues often conflict: liberty versus equality, justice versus mercy, tolerance versus order. For the ironist, ultimate truth exists, but day-to-day life is often about balance and trade-offs. There is no unified, all-encompassing system for correct living. For the ironists, like Reinhold Niebuhr or Isaiah Berlin, those purists who aim to be higher than the angels often end up lower than the beasts. Throughout history we’ve seen a lot of purist religious faiths, from the Spanish inquisitors to the modern Islamic radicals, who believe in a single true way of living. Today we see a lot of secular purists: the students at Middlebury who want to shout down differing opinions, the legal activists who want to force Orthodox Christian bakers to work at gay weddings, against their conscience. This movement has led many Christians to conclude that they are about to become pariahs in their own nation. One of these is my friend Rod Dreher, whose new book, “The Benedict Option,” is already the most discussed and most important religious book of the decade. Rod is pretty conservative. “There can be no peace between Christianity and the sexual revolution, because they are radically opposed,” he writes. Specifically, “L.G.B.T. activism is the tip of the spear at our throats in the culture war. The struggle over gay rights is what is threatening religious liberty, putting Christian merchants out of business, threatening the tax-exempt status and accreditation of Christian schools and colleges.” Rod shares the fears that are now common in Orthodox Christian circles, that because of their views on L.G.B.T. issues, Orthodox Christians and Jews will soon be banned from many professions and corporations. “Blacklisting will be real,” he says. We are entering a new Dark Age. “There are people alive today who may live to see the effective death of Christianity within our civilization.” Rod says it’s futile to keep fighting the culture war, because it’s over. Instead believers should follow the model of the sixth-century monk St. Benedict, who set up separate religious communities as the Roman empire collapsed around them. The heroes of Rod’s book are almost all monks. Christians should withdraw inward to deepen, purify and preserve their faith, he says. They should secede from mainstream culture, pull their children from public school, put down roots in separate communities. Maybe if I shared Rod’s views on L.G.B.T. issues, I would see the level of threat and darkness he does. But I don’t see it. Over the course of history, American culture has tolerated slavery, sexual brutalism and the genocide of the Native Americans, and now we’re supposed to see 2017 as the year the Dark Ages descended? Rod is pre-emptively surrendering when in fact some practical accommodation is entirely possible. Most Americans are not hellbent on destroying religious institutions. If anything they are spiritually hungry and open to religious conversation. It should be possible to find a workable accommodation between L.G.B.T. rights and religious liberty, especially since Orthodox Jews and Christians aren’t trying to impose their views on others, merely preserve a space for their witness to a transcendent reality. My big problem with Rod is that he answers secular purism with religious purism. By retreating to neat homogeneous monocultures, most separatists will end up doing what all self-segregationists do, fostering narrowness, prejudice and moral arrogance. They will close off the dynamic creativity of a living faith. There is a beautiful cohesion to the monastic vocation. But most people are dragged willy-nilly into life — with all its contradictions and complexities. Many who experience faith experience it most vividly within the web of their rival loves — different communities, jobs, dilemmas. They have faith in their faith. It gives them a way of being within the realities of a messy and impure world. The right response to the moment is not the Benedict Option, it is Orthodox Pluralism. It is to surrender to some orthodoxy that will overthrow the superficial obsessions of the self and put one’s life in contact with a transcendent ideal. But it is also to reject the notion that that ideal can be easily translated into a pure, homogenized path. It is, on the contrary, to throw oneself more deeply into friendship with complexity, with different believers and atheists, liberals and conservatives, the dissimilar and unalike. Rod and I have different views on L.G.B.T. issues. But I think we genuinely respect each other and honor each other’s lives. To me that means the real enemy is not the sexual revolution. It is a form of purism that can’t tolerate difference because it can’t humbly accept the mystery of truth.
  17. When Sékou Touré of Guinea decided in 1958 to get out of french colonial empire, and opted for the country independence, the french colonial elite in Paris got so furious, and in a historic act of fury the french administration in Guinea destroyed everything in the country which represented what they called the benefits from french colonization. Three thousand French left the country, taking all their property and destroying anything that which could not be moved: schools, nurseries, public administration buildings were crumbled; cars, books, medicine, research institute instruments, tractors were crushed and sabotaged; horses, cows in the farms were killed, and food in warehouses were burned or poisoned. The purpose of this outrageous act was to send a clear message to all other colonies that the consequences for rejecting France would be very high. Slowly fear spread trough the african elite, and none after the Guinea events ever found the courage to follow the example of Sékou Touré, whose slogan was “We prefer freedom in poverty to opulence in slavery.” Sylvanus Olympio, the first president of the Republic of Togo, a tiny country in west Africa, found a middle ground solution with the French. He didn’t want his country to continue to be a french dominion, therefore he refused to sign the colonisation continuation pact De Gaule proposed, but agree to pay an annual debt to France for the so called benefits Togo got from french colonization. It was the only conditions for the French not to destroy the country before leaving. However, the amount estimated by France was so big that the reimbursement of the so called “colonial debt” was close to 40% of the country budget in 1963. The financial situation of the newly independent Togo was very unstable, so in order to get out the situation, Olympio decided to get out the french colonial money FCFA (the franc for french african colonies), and issue the country own currency. On January 13, 1963, three days after he started printing his country own currency, a squad of illiterate soldiers backed by France killed the first elected president of newly independent Africa. Olympio was killed by an ex French Foreign Legionnaire army sergeant called Etienne Gnassingbe who supposedly received a bounty of $612 from the local French embassy for the hit man job. Olympio’s dream was to build an independent and self-sufficient and self-reliant country. But the French didn’t like the idea. On June 30, 1962, Modiba Keita , the first president of the Republic of Mali, decided to withdraw from the french colonial currency FCFA which was imposed on 12 newly independent African countries. For the Malian president, who was leaning more to a socialist economy, it was clear that colonisation continuation pact with France was a trap, a burden for the country development. On November 19, 1968, like, Olympio, Keita will be the victim of a coup carried out by another ex French Foreign legionnaire, the Lieutenant Moussa Traoré. In fact during that turbulent period of African fighting to liberate themselves from European colonization, France would repeatedly use many ex Foreign legionnaires to carry out coups against elected presidents: – On January 1st, 1966, Jean-Bédel Bokassa, an ex french foreign legionnaire, carried a coup against David Dacko, the first President of the Central African Republic. – On January 3, 1966, Maurice Yaméogo, the first President of the Republic of Upper Volta, now called Burkina Faso, was victim of a coup carried by Aboubacar Sangoulé Lamizana, an ex French legionnaire who fought with french troops in Indonesia and Algeria against these countries independence. – on 26 October 1972, Mathieu Kérékou who was a security guard to President Hubert Maga, the first President of the Republic of Benin, carried a coup against the president, after he attended French military schools from 1968 to 1970. In fact, during the last 50 years, a total of 67 coups happened in 26 countries in Africa, 16 of those countries are french ex-colonies, which means 61% of the coups happened in Francophone Africa. Number of Coups in Africa by country Ex French colonies Other African countries Country Number of coup Country number of coup Togo 1 Egypte 1 Tunisia 1 Libye 1 Cote d’Ivoire 1 Equatorial Guinea 1 Madagascar 1 Guinea Bissau 2 Rwanda 1 Liberia 2 Algeria 2 Nigeria 3 Congo – RDC 2 Ethiopia 3 Mali 2 Ouganda 4 Guinea Conakry 2 Soudan 5 SUB-TOTAL 1 13 Congo 3 Tchad 3 Burundi 4 Central Africa 4 Niger 4 Mauritania 4 Burkina Faso 5 Comores 5 SUB-TOTAL 2 32 TOTAL (1 + 2) 45 TOTAL 22 As these numbers demonstrate, France is quite desperate but active to keep a strong hold on his colonies what ever the cost, no matter what. In March 2008, former French President Jacques Chirac said: “Without Africa, France will slide down into the rank of a third [world] power” Chirac’s predecessor François Mitterand already prophesied in 1957 that: “Without Africa, France will have no history in the 21st century” At this very moment I’m writing this article, 14 african countries are obliged by France, trough a colonial pact, to put 85% of their foreign reserve into France central bank under French minister of Finance control. Until now, 2014, Togo and about 13 other african countries still have to pay colonial debt to France. African leaders who refuse are killed or victim of coup. Those who obey are supported and rewarded by France with lavish lifestyle while their people endure extreme poverty, and desperation. It’s such an evil system even denounced by the European Union, but France is not ready to move from that colonial system which puts about 500 billions dollars from Africa to its treasury year in year out. We often accuse African leaders of corruption and serving western nations interests instead, but there is a clear explanation for that behavior. They behave so because they are afraid the be killed or victim of a coup. They want a powerful nation to back them in case of aggression or trouble. But, contrary to a friendly nation protection, the western protection is often offered in exchange of these leaders renouncing to serve their own people or nations’ interests. African leaders would work in the interest of their people if they were not constantly stalked and bullied by colonial countries. In 1958, scared about the consequence of choosing independence from France, Leopold Sédar Senghor declared: “The choice of the Senegalese people is independence; they want it to take place only in friendship with France, not in dispute.” From then on France accepted only an “independence on paper” for his colonies, but signed binding “Cooperation Accords”, detailing the nature of their relations with France, in particular ties to France colonial currency (the Franc), France educational system, military and commercial preferences. Below are the 11 main components of the Colonisation continuation pact since 1950s: #1. Colonial Debt for the benefits of France colonization The newly “independent” countries should pay for the infrastructure built by France in the country during colonization. I still have to find out the complete details about the amounts, the evaluation of the colonial benefits and the terms of payment imposed on the african countries, but we are working on that (help us with info). #2. Automatic confiscation of national reserves The African countries should deposit their national monetary reserves into France Central bank. France has been holding the national reserves of fourteen african countries since 1961: Benin, Burkina Faso, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Mali, Niger, Senegal, Togo, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo-Brazzaville, Equatorial Guinea and Gabon. “The monetary policy governing such a diverse aggregation of countries is uncomplicated because it is, in fact, operated by the French Treasury, without reference to the central fiscal authorities of any of the WAEMU or the CEMAC. Under the terms of the agreement which set up these banks and the CFA the Central Bank of each African country is obliged to keep at least 65% of its foreign exchange reserves in an “operations account” held at the French Treasury, as well as another 20% to cover financial liabilities. The CFA central banks also impose a cap on credit extended to each member country equivalent to 20% of that country’s public revenue in the preceding year. Even though the BEAC and the BCEAO have an overdraft facility with the French Treasury, the drawdowns on those overdraft facilities are subject to the consent of the French Treasury. The final say is that of the French Treasury which has invested the foreign reserves of the African countries in its own name on the Paris Bourse. In short, more than 80% of the foreign reserves of these African countries are deposited in the “operations accounts” controlled by the French Treasury. The two CFA banks are African in name, but have no monetary policies of their own. The countries themselves do not know, nor are they told, how much of the pool of foreign reserves held by the French Treasury belongs to them as a group or individually. The earnings of the investment of these funds in the French Treasury pool are supposed to be added to the pool but no accounting is given to either the banks or the countries of the details of any such changes. The limited group of high officials in the French Treasury who have knowledge of the amounts in the “operations accounts”, where these funds are invested; whether there is a profit on these investments; are prohibited from disclosing any of this information to the CFA banks or the central banks of the African states .” Wrote Dr. Gary K. Busch It’s now estimated that France is holding close to 500 billions African countries money in its treasury, and would do anything to fight anyone who want to shed a light on this dark side of the old empire. The African countries don’t have access to that money. France allows them to access only 15% of the money in any given year. If they need more than that, they have to borrow the extra money from their own 65% from the French Treasury at commercial rates. To make things more tragic, France impose a cap on the amount of money the countries could borrow from the reserve. The cap is fixed at 20% of their public revenue in the preceding year. If the countries need to borrow more than 20% of their own money, France has a veto. Former French President Jacques Chirac recently spoke about the African nations money in France banks. Here is a video of him speaking about the french exploitation scheme. He is speaking in French, but here is a short excerpt transcript: “We have to be honest, and acknowledge that a big part of the money in our banks come precisely from the exploitation of the African continent.” #3. Right of first refusal on any raw or natural resource discovered in the country France has the first right to buy any natural resources found in the land of its ex-colonies. It’s only after France would say, “I’m not interested”, that the African countries are allowed to seek other partners. #4. Priority to French interests and companies in public procurement and public biding In the award of government contracts, French companies must be considered first, and only after that these countries could look elsewhere. It doesn’t matter if the african countries can obtain better value for money elsewhere. As consequence, in many of the french ex-colonies, all the majors economical assets of the countries are in the hand of french expatriates. In Côte d’Ivoire, for example, french companies own and control all the major utilities – water, electricity, telephone, transport, ports and major banks. The same in commerce, construction, and agriculture. In the end, as I’ve written in a previous article, Africans now Live On A Continent Owned by Europeans! #5. Exclusive right to supply military equipment and Train the country military officers Through a sophisticated scheme of scholarships, grants, and “Defense Agreements” attached to the Colonial Pact, the africans should send their senior military officers for training in France or French ran-training facilities. The situation on the continent now is that France has trained hundreds, even thousands of traitors and nourish them. They are dormant when they are not needed, and activated when needed for a coup or any other purpose! #6. Right for France to pre-deploy troops and intervene military in the country to defend its interests Under something called “Defence Agreements” attached to the Colonial Pact, France had the legal right to intervene militarily in the African countries, and also to station troops permanently in bases and military facilities in those countries, run entirely by the French. French military bases in Africa When President Laurent Gbagbo of Côte d’Ivoire tried to end the French exploitation of the country, France organized a coup. During the long process to oust Gbagbo, France tanks, helicopter gunships and Special Forces intervened directly in the conflit, fired on civilians and killed many. To add insult to injury, France estimated that the French business community had lost several millions of dollars when in the rush to leave Abidjan in 2006 the French Army massacred 65 unarmed civilians and wounded 1,200 others. After France succeeded the coup, and transferred power to Alassane Outtara, France requested Ouattara government to pay compensation to French business community for the losses during the civil war. Indeed the Ouattara government paid them twice what they said they had lost in leaving. #7. Obligation to make French the official language of the country and the language for education Oui, Monsieur. Vous devez parlez français, la langue de Molière! A French language and culture dissemination organization has been created called “Francophonie” with several satellites and affiliates organizations supervised by the French Minister of Foreign Affairs. As demonstrated in this article, if French is the only language you speak, you’d have access to less than 4% of humanity knowledge and ideas. That’s very limiting. #8. Obligation to use France colonial money FCFA That’s the real milk cow for France, but it’s such an evil system even denounced by the European Union, but France is not ready to move from that colonial system which puts about 500 billions dollars from Africa to its treasury. During the introduction of Euro currency in Europe, other european countries discovered the french exploitation scheme. Many, specially the nordic countries, were appalled and suggested France get rid of the system, but unsuccessfully. #9. Obligation to send France annual balance and reserve report. Without the report, no money. Anyway the secretary of the Central banks of the ex-colonies, and the secretary of the bi-annual meeting of the Ministers of Finance of the ex-colonies is carried out by France Central bank / Treasury. #10. Renonciation to enter into military alliance with any other country unless authorized by France African countries in general are the ones with will less regional military alliances. Most of the countries have only military alliances with their ex-colonisers! (funny, but you can’t do better!). In the case France ex-colonies, France forbid them to seek other military alliance except the one it offered them. #11. Obligation to ally with France in situation of war or global crisis Over one million africans soldiers fought for the defeat of nazism and fascism during the second world war. Their contribution is often ignored or minimized, but when you think that it took only 6 weeks for Germany to defeat France in 1940, France knows that Africans could be useful for fighting for la “Grandeur de la France” in the future. There is something almost psychopathic in the relation of France with Africa. First, France is severely addicted to looting and exploitation of Africa since the time of slavery. Then there is this complete lack of creativity and imagination of french elite to think beyond the past and tradition. Finally, France has 2 institutions which are completely frozen into the past, inhabited by paranoid and psychopath “haut fonctionnaires” who spread fear of apocalypse if France would change, and whose ideological reference still comes from the 19th century romanticism: they are the Minister of Finance and Budget of France and the Minister of Foreign affairs of France. These 2 institutions are not only a threat to Africa, but to the French themselves. It’s up to us as African to free ourselves, without asking for permission, because I still can’t understand for example how 450 french soldiers in Côte d’Ivoire could control a population of 20 millions people!? People first reaction when they learn about the french colonial tax is often a question: “Until when?” For historical comparison, France made Haiti to pay the modern equivalent of $21 billion from 1804 till 1947 (almost one century and half) for the losses caused to french slave traders by the abolition of slavery and the liberation of the Haitian slaves. African countries are paying the colonial tax only for the last 50 years, so I think one century of payment might be left! http://www.siliconafrica.com/france-colonial-tax/?utm_content=buffer8680a&utm_medium=social&utm_source=twitter.com&utm_campaign=buffer
  18. Морам да признам да ми је првенствено кроз културу видео-игара, заправо "пуцачина из првог лица", Други светски рат нарочито "омиљен". Колико сам само ноћи и дана провео за рачунаром "рокајући" Швабе, још од легендарног "Вулфенштајна 3Д" средином 90-их, па преко свих његових итерација до дана данашњег, "Снајпера", те свих делова (који се тичу Друге војне) из серијала "Дужност зове" и "Медаља части". Нажалост, велики светски студији за развој видео игара, не посвећују довољно пажње малим земљама, тако да сте у боју против "Хансова и Фрицова", могли да будете увек Амер, готово увек Рус, нешто мање Британац и где где Француз, тј припадник покрета отпора (има једна ГТАлична игра, солидна, не могу да се сетим назива), али (сем неких независних пољских студија, где се могло бити пољским командосом у саставу војске ЊВ Краљице Мајке), нема видео игре у којој можете бити југословенски партизан или пак припадник ЈВуО. Наравно, овде причам о "пуцачинама". Е онда се почетком 2008. године појави ова игра (Turning Point), где сте у улози америчког партизана с почетка 50-их и рокате европског окупатора, који је дошао да окупира "земљу слободних и домовину храбрих". Тај предложак је рабљен и у још једној видео игри где Северна Кореја окупира Америку (Homefront), али и у чувеном америчком филму "Црвена зора", још чувенијег Џона Милијуса, где урбана легенда каже да је Милијус у том филму (покојни Патрик Свејзи вођа партизана, Совјети напали САД) заправо преписао естетику нашег чувеног режисера "револуционарног вестерна"-"Шибе" Хајрудина Крвавца и његовог чувеног "покера" филмова: "Диверзанти", "Мост", "Валтер брани Сарајево" и "Партизанска ескадрила"... Можда и јесте измишљена прича, али ако изузмемо идеолошки моменат (којег у сва четири поменута Шибина дела има у траговима, поредећи са остатком југо-партизанске кинематографије), те чињеницу да је Шибо "злочинац", који је зарад реалности уништио више од две ескадриле чувених југословенских ловаца "522" који су "глумили" немачке "ФокеВулфове 190", заиста су ова 4 филма донела "нешто ново" што самоуправљач, сељак, радник, па и добар део "поштене интелигенције" није умео да препозна... А заправо, то је "дух" вестерна, филмског жанра са усамљеним јахачем и борцем за правду, тако неприлично комунарском колективитету... Е онда, пре неки дан, лутајући по овим сајтовима (клоновима ПопКорнТајма), лаке забаве за српску сиротињу која не гледа ТВ :))), налетим на један "Амазонов" ТВ серијал, у (за сада) 20 епизода. За 2017. годину је најављена и трећа сезона... "Човек у високом дворцу". Серијал настао по предлошку истоименог дела америчког писца Филипа Дика. Алтернативна историјска дистопијска прича... Други рат се није завршио онако како знамо, него су Швабе овладавши пре тога Европом, Русијом и Африком, односно Јапанци остатком Азије и Аустралијом, "рокнули" атомском бомбом Вашингтон и поделили Америку на два дела. Источни део и Средњи Запад Швабама, Западни део "косоокима", док је басен Стеновитих планина, па преко Средње Америке ка Јужној Америци у начелу независан, али је под "меком" контролом и једних и других и иначе изгледа као "њукован", иако атомско оружје тамо није деловало. Западна обала "личи" на период какава је и била 60-их, док су Источна обала, Њујорк, као и Берлин у којем се одвија радња неколико епизода, компјутерском анимацијом претворени у "стимпанковске" екстеријере болесно хладне нацистичке архитектонске естетике... Нећу препричавати, препоручујем да погледате. Екипу која стоји иза серијала предводе Ридли Скот којег не треба посебно представљати и Френк Спотниц (Досије Икс), као продуценти. Режисери свих 20 епизода су различити, то нека мода ваљда... Заплет је класичан партизански. Два покрета отпора, у јапанском и швапском делу подељене Америке. Пошто су Јапанци нешто "мекши" према црнцима, Словенима и Јеврејима, на Западној обали "отпораши" боље функционишу, док је примена "расних Закона" и уопште сва болест једног система какав је био Немачки у Другом рату, до изражаја дошла на источној обали, где партизани раде у дубокој илегали и где је СС Обергрупенфирер Џон Смит (у рангу генерал пуковника-заправо амерички "фирер"), завео страховладу. Иначе некдашњи пуковник Маринаца САД, херој из Мидвеја, који се након "њуковања" Вашингтона, брзо "преоријентисао" и постао нациста. Тумачи га, неко рече на свету не би могли наћи бољег и "болеснијег" за улогу фашисте од њега Руфус Суел... Ту је и његов "епигон" Џо Блејк, дете Лебенсборна, који у контакту са једном партизанком, није начисто је ли за или против Шваба. Ту партизанку тумачи шармантан Александра Давалос... Од познатијих глумаца, ту је још и ДиЏеј Квалс и наш православни брат Кари Хиројуки Тагава, који тумачи лик јапанског министра трговине, заправо највишег представника цивилне власти царског Јапана на тлу Западне америчке обале... И нећу више ништа рећи, вреди потрошити 1000 минута живота (20 епизода по 50 минута) и још 500 кад изађе трећа сезона, само сам дужан да упозорим, на оно што је мене нервирало у другој сезони, а то је инсистирање режисера на два одвојена света, односно две одвојене реалности у којима брат у Христу Тагава обитава; заправо то је занатска алатка звана "флешбек", али направљена са доста фантастике, као да ова "какотопија" није сама по себи толико фантастична... Тако да, барем мени-иде на живце, срећом по 5-6 минута по епизоди друге сезоне... Ако је неко мерило, на ИМДб-у, серијал има оцену од 8,1 и још једном, ако сте љубитељ жанра, а нисте до сада видели, обавезно погледајте.
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