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Found 29 results

  1. His Eminence Metropolitan Cornelius of Tallinn, the head of the Estonian Orthodox Church of the Moscow Patriarchate, has reposed in the Lord, Sputnik reports. He was 94 years old. Met. Cornelius (Vyacheslav Vasilievich Jacobs in the world) was born on June 19, 1924 in Tallinn into the family of a Royal Army colonel. He graduated from high school in 1943 and preserved as a chanter in the Church of the Nativity of the Theotokos in the Estonian capital. He was ordained as a deacon on August 19, 1945, and as a priest on February 8, 1948, being appointed as the rector of the Church of St. Mary Magdalene in Haapsalu. He graduated from the Leningrad Theological Seminary by correspondence in 1951. He was arrested by the Vologda Region KGB on February 27, 1957 for “anti-Soviet agitation,” and was sentenced to 10 years in political camps in Mordovia. The sentence was later reduced to 5 years, and on September 7, 1960 he was released early on parole. He returned to Estonia in November 1960 and was appointed as the rector of St. John the Baptist in Tallinn. He was appointed as the bishop of Tallinn and vicar to His Holiness Patriarch Alexei II on July 20, 1990. He was tonsured as a monk at the Pskov Caves Monastery on August 21, 1990 with the name of Cornelius. He was elevated to the rank of archimandrite on September 6 and consecrated as a bishop on September 15 at the St. Alexander Nevsky Cathedral in Tallinn. He thereby became the primate of the Estonian Orthodox Church which was simultaneously granted autonomy by the Moscow Patriarchate. He was elevated to the rank of archbishop in 1995, and to that of metropolitan on November 6, 2000. Before his death he was the oldest bishop of the Russian Orthodox Church. May his memory be eternal! http://orthochristian.com/112373.html
  2. How China Just “Reset” the Global Monetary System With Gold International oil trade is the crux of the issue. For decades, the world’s largest oil importers have paid for oil using the petrodollar, which supports the dollar’s value and fuels U.S. government deficit spending (primarily because the petrodollar is backed by Treasuries). But now, China is looking to upset the current petrodollar system by introducing gold-backed “petroyuan” oil futures contracts. And since China is the largest importer of oil globally, this massive shift away from the petrodollar could be bad news for the U.S. But it could be great news for gold owners. Here’s why…
  3. Serbia has not implemented in a satisfactory manner any of the thirteen recommendations provided by the Council of Europe’s anti-corruption body GRECO (Group of States against Corruption) to the country in July 2015, according to the new compliance report published today. GRECO specifically recommended that measures be taken to further improve the transparency of the parliamentary process, including through ensuring adequate timelines for submitting amendments and using the urgent procedure as an exception and not as a rule. A need to introduce transparency regulations on parliamentarians’ contacts with lobbyists and other third parties, given the great risk of undue influence, was underlined. Only limited progress has been achieved as regards transparency of the activity of the National Assembly, GRECO says in today’s compliance report. More determined action is necessary in this regard, as well as on the adoption of a code of conduct and the introduction of rules for members of parliament on how they interact with lobbyists and other third parties. Among other recommendations of 2015 were strengthening the independence and role of the High Judicial Council and the State Prosecutorial Council; amending the procedures for the recruitment and promotion of judges, court presidents and prosecutors, in particular by excluding the National Assembly from this process and ensuring merit-based recruitment; and continued reform of the system of appraisal of judges’ and prosecutors’ performance. As far as judges are concerned, in the compliance report GRECO welcomes the measures taken to further develop the role of the High Judicial Council, improve the objectivity and transparency of the procedures for the recruitment and promotion of judges, as well as to train judges on ethical issues. Beyond a necessary constitutional reform in order to change the composition of the High Judicial Council and exclude the National Assembly from the process of recruitment of judges, GRECO expects a review of the system of appraisal of judges’ performance. Prosecutors are in a situation largely similar to judges. Some steps have been taken to strengthen the role of the State Prosecutorial Council, to review the performance appraisal system for prosecutors and to train them on ethical issues. Further progress is conditioned by the upcoming constitutional reform. GRECO reiterates its call upon the Serbian authorities to review the criteria for the recruitment and promotion of prosecutors. In view of the above, GRECO concludes that the overall very low level of compliance with the recommendations is "globally unsatisfactory". GRECO therefore asks the Head of the Serbian delegation to provide a report on the progress in implementing all the pending recommendations as soon as possible, but at the latest by 31 October 2018. http://www.coe.int/nl/web/portal/-/serbia-has-not-implemented-any-of-the-recommendations-on-preventing-corruption-among-parliamentarians-judges-and-prosecutors https://rm.coe.int/fourth-evaluation-round-corruption-prevention-in-respect-of-members-of/1680792e56
  4. atWith A Bang, CONTRIBUTOR GROUPEthanSiegel, CONTRIBUTORNov 1, 201710:093 National Fusion Research Institute, Korea The plasma in the center of this fusion reactor is so hot it [+] The United States spends more on military spending than the next ten nations combined: an estimated $600 billion annually. Meanwhile, the entire budgets of NASA and the National Science Foundation, combined, is only ~$25 billion, or about 4% of our military budget. Many astronomers, astrophysicists, engineers, and scientists of all persuasions dream of the benefits that mild increases to their budgets could bring, but these are tiny, incremental dreams. What if we truly reached for the stars? What if we dreamed of a day where we invested in peaceful research for the betterment of humanity as much as we invested in war, defense, and the military? If our space and science budgets went up to $600 billion, either in lieu of or in addition to whatever we spent on the military, what we could accomplish would be tremendous. Here are five possibilities of what we could do with just a single year’s worth of military-level spending. PPPL management, Princeton University, the Department of Energy, from the FIRE project A fusion device based on magnetically confined plasma. Hot [+] 1.) The ultimate energy breakthrough: a net-energy-producing nuclear fusion reactor. While there are multiple different methods we have for achieving nuclear fusion, the most promising avenue is through magnetic confinement. An international consortium, known as ITER, was begun as far back as the Reagan-Gorbachev era, and construction is finally set to be complete in 2019, after a total investment of around €20 billion. After that, it will take another decade to get the plasma running successfully, and then in the 2030s, it can push past the breakeven point, fusing deuterium and tritium together. Yet in many ways, the only thing preventing fusion power from permeating through our world today is this up-front investment with an incredible long-term payoff. For the cost of the military’s budget for just a single year, we could not only achieve nuclear fusion, we could learn to scale it and revolutionize how we deal with power and energy on Earth. It’s the ultimate holy grail for energy, and the greatest barrier to its success isn’t physics, but a lack of investment. NASA/Viking 1 Mars, along with its thin atmosphere, as photographed from [+] 2.) At least four separate human colonies on Mars. Humans on Mars? The only thing stopping us is funding, and this has been true since the 1990s. With a sustained investment of between $50 and $150 billion total over 10 years, we could land a slew of equipment on the Martian surface, then a crew of human beings, who would stay for anywhere from 6 to 18 months before returning home. Even at the maximum end of that, we could set up four separate, independent colonies on another planet for the cost of just one year of US military spending. The only reason we haven’t done so already is funding. Wikimedia Commons user Lucas Braun Two workers installing a tilt-up photovoltaic array on a [+] 3.) A 2,000 Watt solar power system for every US household. There are lots of revolutionary technologies that are being outfitted with solar power, from transparent windows to shingles to siding. But the cheapest, most efficient solar technology is still the solar panel. Systems that generate approximately 2,000 Watts are now under $5000, and provide an estimated 175-375 kWh per month. With around 125 million households in the United States, a $600 billion budget could provide one of these systems for every household in the country, where the average American uses 920 kWh per month. It wouldn’t solve our energy needs, but it would significantly reduce the burden on our electric grid and cut our fossil fuel consumption dramatically. And it would take effect immediately, or at least as quickly as we could produce that many solar panels. ILC collaboration A hypothetical new accelerator, either a long linear one or [+] 4.) A country-sized particle accelerator 40 times as powerful as the LHC. So, you thought the LHC was fun? It’s achieved proton-proton collisions at 14 TeV of energy in a 27-kilometer-long tunnel, underground, and it’s done so for a total cost of around $10 billion. What could we build for sixty times that amount? Believe it or not, there are only two free parameters that determine how high-in-energy your circular accelerator can make protons go: the strength of the electromagnets used to steer them and the circumference of your ring. For $600 billion, we could build a tunnel approximately 1000 kilometers around, and achieve proton-on-proton collisions of over 500 TeV. If our electromagnet technology continues to improve, we might finally crack the PeV (where 1 PeV = 1,000 TeV) frontier. The next step up from a ring this large would be a “Fermitron,” first envisioned by Enrico Fermi, of a particle accelerator the circumference of the entire Earth. If the LHC turns up anything new beyond the Higgs boson, there will be a strong science case for investigating the next level in the energy frontier. G. Snyder, STScI /M. Postman, STScI A simulated view of the same part of the sky, with the same [+] 5.) A “super-Hubble” over 100 times as powerful as today’s. The Hubble Space Telescope was a revolutionary observatory, and in many ways is still the top dog in the field of astronomy and astrophysics. But at just 2.4 meters in diameter, it’s already reached its maximum resolution. In fact, to see objects ten times as faint, it needs to observe them for 100 times as long! But if we built a space telescope ten times the diameter, at 24 meters, it would not only have ten times the resolution, but would see in just 2 hours what it takes Hubble over a week to see. The James Webb Space Telescope, with its segmented design, sunshield, and automated, robotic technology can serve as a proof-of-concept of a mission like this, but the limiting factor is funding. To get the size, image quality, and launch-and-servicing capabilities necessary to make a behemoth like this possible would require a massive investment. For $600 billion, we might be able to get all the way up to a diameter of between 30-and-40 meters, but “100 times as powerful as Hubble” is a very conservative estimate. That, and the technologies we’d develop would be as revolutionary for humanity as anything that came out of the Apollo program. Mars One (rendering) An illustration of what a human colony on Mars might look [+] Of course, for much, much less than $600 billion, we could make extraordinary contributions towards every single one of these at once. ITER, the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, is still under construction, with an estimated total cost of $40 billion for all of its total expenses during its lifetime, which should extend into the 2030s. A single crewed mission to the Martian surface, round-trip, could be responsibly done for as little as $50 billion, including massive infrastructure development of the Martian surface. 2 kW rooftop solar installations are commercially available for under $5000 apiece, and could cut an average electricity bill by 25% each and every month it’s in operation. “Smaller” supercolliders are cost-estimated in the range of $20-40 billion, and would achieve energy levels many times greater than the LHC. And LUVOIR, the most ambitious space telescope proposal with 40 times the light-gathering power of Hubble, would likely fall in the ~$15 billion range. NASA / LUVOIR concept team; Serge Brunier (background) The concept design of the LUVOIR space telescope would place [+] The costs of achieving our scientific dreams is, indeed, astronomically high, but the payoffs are even greater. In just a single generation, an investment of this scale in science and technology could transform our world in a way we’ve never seen before. Just a single year’s worth of the military budget — a whopping $600 billion — could more than double our investment in space and basic scientific research for the next 25 years. It would do more than make America great again. It would make the world great in a way that nothing else can; in a way humanity has never seen before. https://www.forbes.com/sites/startswithabang/2017/11/01/5-incredible-advances-science-could-buy-with-the-governments-600b-military-budget/
  5. THE FIRST BOOK ADMONITIONS PROFITABLE FOR THE SPIRITUAL LIFE CHAPTER I Of the imitation of Christ, and of contempt of the world and all its vanities 1. He that follows me shall not walk in darkness(1), says the Lord. There are the words of Christ; and they teach us how far we must imitate His life and character, if we seek true illumination, and deliverance from all blindness of heart. Let it be our most earnest study, therefore, to dwell upon the life of Jesus Christ. 2. His teaching surpasses all teaching of holy men, and such as have His Spirit find therein the hidden manna.(2) But there are many who, though they frequently hear the Gospel, yet feel but little longing after it, because they have not the mind of Christ. He, therefore, that will fully and with true wisdom understand the words of Christ, let him strive to conform his whole life to that mind of Christ. 3. What does it profit you to enter into deep discussion concerning the Holy Trinity, if you lack humility, and be thus displeasing to the Trinity? For verily it is not deep words that make a man holy and upright; it is a good life which makes a man dear to God. I had rather feel contrition than be skillful in the definition thereof. If you know the whole Bible, and the sayings of all the philosophers, what should all this profit you without the love and grace of God? Vanity of vanities, all is vanity, save to love God, and Him only to serve. That is the highest wisdom, to cast the world behind us, and to reach forward to the heavenly kingdom. 4. It is vanity then to seek after, and to trust in, the riches that shall perish. It is vanity, too, to covet honors, and to lift up ourselves on high. It is vanity to follow the desires of the flesh and be led by them, for this shall bring misery at the last. It is vanity to desire a long life, and to have little care for a good life. It is vanity to take thought only for the life which now is, and not to look forward to the things which shall be hereafter. It is vanity to love that which quickly passes away, and not to hasten where eternal joy abides. 5. Always be mindful of the saying,(3) The eye is not satisfied with seeing, nor the ear with hearing. Strive, therefore, to turn away your heart from the love of the things that are seen, and to set it upon the things that are not seen. For they who follow after their own fleshly lusts, defile the conscience, and destroy the grace of God. http://www.siestakeybeachmeeting.com/index_htm_files/Imitation of Christ -Modern translation.pdf http://www.thelatinlibrary.com/kempis.html
  6. Islamic India – The biggest holocaust in World History The genocide suffered by the Hindus of India at the hands of Arab, Turkish, Mughal and Afghan occupying forces for a period of 800 years is as yet formally unrecognised by the World. With the invasion of India by Mahmud Ghazni about 1000 A.D., began the Muslim invasions into the Indian subcontinent and they lasted for several centuries. Nadir Shah made a mountain of the skulls of the Hindus he killed in Delhi alone. Babur raised towers of Hindu skulls at Khanua when he defeated Rana Sanga in 1527 and later he repeated the same horrors after capturing the fort of Chanderi. Akbar ordered a general massacre of 30,000 Rajputs after he captured Chithorgarh in 1568. The Bahamani Sultans had an annual agenda of killing a minimum of 100,000 Hindus every year. The history of medieval India is full of such instances. The holocaust of the Hindus in India continued for 800 years, till the brutal regimes were effectively overpowered in a life and death struggle by the Sikhs in the Panjab and the Hindu Maratha armies in other parts of India in the late 1700’s. We have elaborate literary evidence of the World’s biggest holocaust from existing historical contemporary eyewitness accounts. The historians and biographers of the invading armies and subsequent rulers of India have left quite detailed records of the atrocities they committed in their day-to-day encounters with India’s Hindus. These contemporary records boasted about and glorified the crimes that were committed – and the genocide of tens of millions of Hindus, Sikhs, Buddhist and Jainist, mass rapes of women and the destruction of thousands of ancient Hindu / Buddhist temples and libraries have been well documented and provide solid proof of the World’s biggest holocaust. Quotes from modern historians Dr. Koenraad Elst in his article “Was There an Islamic Genocide of Hindus?” states: “There is no official estimate of the total death toll of Hindus at the hands of Islam. A first glance at important testimonies by Muslim chroniclers suggests that, over 13 centuries and a territory as vast as the Subcontinent, Muslim Holy Warriors easily killed more Hindus than the 6 million of the Holocaust. Ferishtha lists several occasions when the Bahmani sultans in central India (1347-1528) killed a hundred thousand Hindus, which they set as a minimum goal whenever they felt like punishing the Hindus; and they were only a third-rank provincial dynasty. The biggest slaughters took place during the raids of Mahmud Ghaznavi (ca. 1000 CE); during the actual conquest of North India by Mohammed Ghori and his lieutenants (1192 ff.); and under the Delhi Sultanate (1206-1526).“ He also writes in his book “Negation in India”: “The Muslim conquests, down to the 16th century, were for the Hindus a pure struggle of life and death. Entire cities were burnt down and the populations massacred, with hundreds of thousands killed in every campaign, and similar numbers deported as slaves. Every new invader made (often literally) his hills of Hindus skulls. Thus, the conquest of Afghanistan in the year 1000 was followed by the annihilation of the Hindu population; the region is still called the Hindu Kush, i.e. Hindu slaughter.” Will Durant argued in his 1935 book “The Story of Civilisation: Our Oriental Heritage” (page 459): “The Mohammedan conquest of India is probably the bloodiest story in history. The Islamic historians and scholars have recorded with great glee and pride the slaughters of Hindus, forced conversions, abduction of Hindu women and children to slave markets and the destruction of temples carried out by the warriors of Islam during 800 AD to 1700 AD. Millions of Hindus were converted to Islam by sword during this period.” Francois Gautier in his book ‘Rewriting Indian History’ (1996) wrote: “The massacres perpetuated by Muslims in India are unparalleled in history, bigger than the Holocaust of the Jews by the Nazis; or the massacre of the Armenians by the Turks; more extensive even than the slaughter of the South American native populations by the invading Spanish and Portuguese.” Alain Danielou in his book, Histoire de l’ Inde writes: “From the time Muslims started arriving, around 632 AD, the history of India becomes a long, monotonous series of murders, massacres, spoliations, and destructions. It is, as usual, in the name of ‘a holy war’ of their faith, of their sole God, that the barbarians have destroyed civilizations, wiped out entire races.” Irfan Husain in his article “Demons from the Past” observes: “While historical events should be judged in the context of their times, it cannot be denied that even in that bloody period of history, no mercy was shown to the Hindus unfortunate enough to be in the path of either the Arab conquerors of Sindh and south Punjab, or the Central Asians who swept in from Afghanistan…The Muslim heroes who figure larger than life in our history books committed some dreadful crimes. Mahmud of Ghazni, Qutb-ud-Din Aibak, Balban, Mohammed bin Qasim, and Sultan Mohammad Tughlak, all have blood-stained hands that the passage of years has not cleansed..Seen through Hindu eyes, the Muslim invasion of their homeland was an unmitigated disaster. “Their temples were razed, their idols smashed, their women raped, their men killed or taken slaves. When Mahmud of Ghazni entered Somnath on one of his annual raids, he slaughtered all 50,000 inhabitants. Aibak killed and enslaved hundreds of thousands. The list of horrors is long and painful. These conquerors justified their deeds by claiming it was their religious duty to smite non-believers. Cloaking themselves in the banner of Islam, they claimed they were fighting for their faith when, in reality, they were indulging in straightforward slaughter and pillage…” A sample of contemporary eyewitness accounts of the invaders and rulers, during the Indian conquests The Afghan ruler Mahmud al-Ghazni invaded India no less than seventeen times between 1001 – 1026 AD. The book ‘Tarikh-i-Yamini’ – written by his secretary documents several episodes of his bloody military campaigns : “The blood of the infidels flowed so copiously [at the Indian city of Thanesar] that the stream was discoloured, notwithstanding its purity, and people were unable to drink it…the infidels deserted the fort and tried to cross the foaming river…but many of them were slain, taken or drowned… Nearly fifty thousand men were killed.” In the contemporary record – ‘ Taj-ul-Ma’asir’ by Hassn Nizam-i-Naishapuri, it is stated that when Qutb-ul- Din Aibak (of Turko – Afghan origin and the First Sultan of Delhi 1194-1210 AD) conquered Meerat, he demolished all the Hindu temples of the city and erected mosques on their sites. In the city of Aligarh, he converted Hindu inhabitants to Islam by the sword and beheaded all those who adhered to their own religion. The Persian historian Wassaf writes in his book ‘Tazjiyat-ul-Amsar wa Tajriyat ul Asar’ that when the Alaul-Din Khilji (An Afghan of Turkish origin and second ruler of the Khilji Dynasty in India 1295-1316 AD) captured the city of Kambayat at the head of the gulf of Cambay, he killed the adult male Hindu inhabitants for the glory of Islam, set flowing rivers of blood, sent the women of the country with all their gold, silver, and jewels, to his own home, and made about twentv thousand Hindu maidens his private slaves. This ruler once asked his spiritual advisor (or ‘Qazi’) as to what was the Islamic law prescribed for the Hindus. The Qazi replied: “Hindus are like the mud; if silver is demanded from them, they must with the greatest humility offer gold. If a Mohammadan desires to spit into a Hindu’s mouth, the Hindu should open it wide for the purpose. God created the Hindus to be slaves of the Mohammadans. The Prophet hath ordained that, if the Hindus do not accept Islam, they should be imprisoned, tortured, finally put to death, and their property confiscated.” Timur was a Turkic conqueror and founder of the Timurid Dynasty. Timur’s Indian campaign (1398 – 1399 AD) was recorded in his memoirs, collectively known as ‘Tuzk-i-Timuri.’ In them, he vividly described probably the greatest gruesome act in the entire history of the world – where 100,000 Hindu prisoners of war in his camp were executed in a very short space of time. Timur after taking advice from his entourage says in his memoirs : “they said that on the great day of battle these 100,000 prisoners could not be left with the baggage, and that it would be entirely opposed to the rules of war to set these idolaters and foes of Islam at liberty. “In fact, no other course remained but that of making them all food for the sword’ Timur thereupon resolved to put them to death. He proclaimed : “throughout the camp that every man who has infidel prisoners was to put them to death, and whoever neglected to do so should himself be executed and his property given to the informer. When this order became known to the ghazis of Islam, they drew their swords and put their prisoners to death. 100,000 infidels, impious idolaters, were on that day slain. Maulana Nasir-ud-din Umar, a counselor and a man of learning, who, in all his life had never killed a sparrow, now, in execution of my order, slew with his sword fifteen idolatrous Hindus, who were his captives“. During his campaign in India – Timur describes the scene when his army conquered the Indian city of Delhi : “In a short space of time all the people in the [Delhi] fort were put to the sword, and in the course of one hour the heads of 10,000 infidels were cut off. The sword of Islam was washed in the blood of the infidels, and all the goods and effects, the treasure and the grain which for many a long year had been stored in the fort became the spoil of my soldiers. “They set fire to the houses and reduced them to ashes, and they razed the buildings and the fort to the ground….All these infidel Hindus were slain, their women and children, and their property and goods became the spoil of the victors. I proclaimed throughout the camp that every man who had infidel prisoners should put them to death, and whoever neglected to do so should himself be executed and his property given to the informer. When this order became known to the ghazis of Islam, they drew their swords and put their prisoners to death.” The Mughal emperor Babur (who ruled India from 1526 -1530 AD) writing in his memoirs called the ‘Baburnama’ – wrote : ” In AH 934 (2538 C.E.) I attacked Chanderi and by the grace of Allah captured it in a few hours. We got the infidels slaughtered and the place which had been Daru’l-Harb (nation of non-muslims) for years was made into a Daru’l-Islam (a muslim nation).” In Babur’s own words in a poem about killing Hindus (From the ‘Baburnama’ ) he wrote : “For the sake of Islam I became a wanderer, I battled infidels and Hindus, I determined to become a martyr Thank God I became a Killer of Non-Muslims!” The atrocities of the Mughal ruler Shah Jahan (who ruled India between 1628 – 1658 AD) are mentioned in the contemporary record called : ‘Badshah Nama, Qazinivi & Badshah Nama , Lahori’ and goes on to state : “When Shuja was appointed as governor of Kabul he carried on a ruthless war in the Hindu territory beyond Indus…The sword of Islam yielded a rich crop of converts….Most of the women (to save their honour) burnt themselves to death. Those captured were distributed among Muslim Mansabdars (Noblemen)” The Afghan ruler Ahmad Shah Abdali attacked India in 1757 AD and made his way to the holy Hindu city of Mathura, the Bethlehem of the Hindus and birthplace of Krishna. The atrocities that followed are recorded in the contemporary chronicle called : ‘Tarikh-I-Alamgiri’ : “Abdali’s soldiers would be paid 5 Rupees (a sizeable amount at the time) for every enemy head brought in. Every horseman had loaded up all his horses with the plundered property, and atop of it rode the girl-captives and the slaves. The severed heads were tied up in rugs like bundles of grain and placed on the heads of the captives…Then the heads were stuck upon lances and taken to the gate of the chief minister for payment. “It was an extraordinary display! Daily did this manner of slaughter and plundering proceed. And at night the shrieks of the women captives who were being raped, deafened the ears of the people…All those heads that had been cut off were built into pillars, and the captive men upon whose heads those bloody bundles had been brought in, were made to grind corn, and then their heads too were cut off. These things went on all the way to the city of Agra, nor was any part of the country spared.” Banda Singh Bahadur was tortured to death after being imprisoned for 3 months. The heart of Banda Singh’s son was put in his mouth in an attempt to humiliate him Why we should remember The biggest holocaust in World History has been whitewashed from history. When we hear the word HOLOCAUST most of us think immediately of the Jewish holocaust. Today, with increased awareness and countless cinema films and television documentaries – many of us are also aware of the Holocaust of the Native American peoples, the genocide of the Armenian peoples in the Ottoman Empire, and the millions of African lives lost during the Atlantic slave trade. Europe and America produced at least a few thousand films highlighting the human misery caused by Hitler and his army. The films expose the horrors of Nazi regime and reinforce the beliefs and attitude of the present day generation towards the evils of the Nazi dictatorship. In contrast look at India. There is hardly any awareness among the Indians of today of what happened to their ancestors in the past, because a great majority of historians are reluctant to touch this sensitive subject. The World seems to either ignore or just does not seem to care about the many millions of lives lost during the 800 – year long holocaust of Hindus, Sikhs and Buddhist in India. The Indian historian Professor K.S. Lal estimates that the Hindu population in India decreased by 80 million between 1000 AD and 1525 AD, an extermination unparalleled in World history. This slaughter of millions of people occurred over regular periods during many centuries of Arab, Afghan, Turkish and Mughal rule in India. Many Indian heroes emerged during these dark times – including the 10th Sikh Guru – Guru Gobind Singh and also the Hindu Maratha king – Shivaji Maratha – who led the resistance against this tyranny and eventually led to its defeat by the late 1700s – after centuries of death and destruction. The modern World today is facing a global threat from organizations and groups of terrorists such as the ISIS, Taliban and Al-Qaeeda – whose ideology is chillingly similar to that of the perpetrators of the World’s biggest holocaust in India. Let us hope that the bloody lessons of the past are learnt so that history does not even have the remotest chance of repeating itself. (https://www.sikhnet.com/news/islamic-india-biggest-holocaust-world-history)
  7. Ovde mozemo da razmenimo utiske o filmu, kako ko bude stizao da gleda, tako da ona druga tema i ona opsta o Star Warsu nemaju postove o tome, a radi izbegavanja spoiler-a. Ko bude gledao neka izvoli da ovde napise svoje utiske ili kompletan review.
  8. Version 1.0.0

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    Dietrich Bonhoeffer
  9. Version 1.0.0

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  10. In the past three month alone, more than 200 universities have announced 560 such free online courses. I’ve compiled this list below and categorized the courses into the following subjects: Computer Science, Mathematics, Programming, Data Science, Humanities, Social Sciences, Education & Teaching, Health & Medicine, Business, Personal Development, Engineering, Art & Design, and finally Science. If you have trouble figuring out how to signup for Coursera courses for free, don’t worry — I’ve written an article on how to do that, too. Here’s the full list of new free online courses. Most of these are completely self-paced, so you can start taking them at your convenience. COMPUTER SCIENCE Convolutional Neural Networks from deeplearning.ai (taught by Stanford Prof. Andrew Ng) Sequence Models from deeplearning.ai Improving Deep Neural Networks: Hyperparameter tuning, Regularization and Optimization from deeplearning.ai Structuring Machine Learning Projects from deeplearning.ai Neural Networks and Deep Learning from deeplearning.ai Algorithms: Design and Analysis from Stanford University (old Couresra course, but hosted without any paywalls directly by Stanford) Algorithms: Design and Analysis, Part 2 from Stanford University The Unix Workbench from Johns Hopkins University Accessible Gamification for Business from Georgia Institute of Technology Machine Learning from Georgia Institute of Technology Accounting Analysis II: Measurement and Disclosure of Liabilitiesfrom University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Deep Learning for Business from Yonsei University Introduction to TCP/IP from Yonsei University TV Whitespaces for Museums and Archives from San Jose State University Capstone: Autonomous Runway Detection for IoT from EIT Digital Cryptography and Information Theory from University of Colorado System Cryptographic Hash and Integrity Protection from University of Colorado System Fundamentals of Network Communication from University of Colorado System Packet Switching Networks and Algorithms from University of Colorado System Cybersecurity Policy for Water and Electricity Infrastructures from University of Colorado System Cybersecurity Policy for Aviation and Internet Infrastructures from University of Colorado System Proactive Computer Security from University of Colorado System Enterprise System Management and Security from University of Colorado System Peer-to-Peer Protocols and Local Area Networks from University of Colorado System Introduction to Cybersecurity for Business from University of Colorado System Cyber Threats and Attack Vectors from University of Colorado System Planning, Auditing and Maintaining Enterprise Systems from University of Colorado System Windows Server Management and Security from University of Colorado System Linux Server Management and Security from University of Colorado System Detecting and Mitigating Cyber Threats and Attacks from University of Colorado System Homeland Security & Cybersecurity Connection — It’s Not About the Terrorists from University of Colorado System Basic Cryptography and Programming with Crypto API from University of Colorado System Classical Cryptosystems and Core Concepts from University of Colorado System Asymmetric Cryptography and Key Management from University of Colorado System Symmetric Cryptography from University of Colorado System Secure Networked System with Firewall and IDS from University of Colorado System TCP/IP and Advanced Topics from University of Colorado System Homeland Security and Cybersecurity Future from University of Colorado System Hacking and Patching from University of Colorado System Design and Analyze Secure Networked Systems from University of Colorado System Sparse Representations in Image Processing: From Theory to Practicefrom Technion — Israel Institute of Technology Sparse Representations in Signal and Image Processing: Fundamentalsfrom Technion — Israel Institute of Technology Cutting Edge Deep Learning For Coders, Part 2 from fast.ai Architettura degli elaboratori from University of Urbino Liberating Programming: System Development for Everyone from Weizmann Institute of Science Big Data Applications: Machine Learning at Scale from Yandex Digital Accessibility as a Business Practice from Ryerson University Банковское дело и финансы from Sberbank Corporate University MATHEMATICS Calculus Applied! from Harvard University Differential Equations: 2x2 Systems from Massachusetts Institute of Technology Introduction to Probability: Part 1 — The Fundamentals from Massachusetts Institute of Technology Number Theory and Cryptography from University of California, San Diego Introduction to Graph Theory from University of California, San Diego What is a Proof? from University of California, San Diego Solving Delivery Problem from University of California, San Diego Геометрия и группы from Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology Mathematical Foundations for Cryptography from University of Colorado System More Fun with Prime Numbers from Kyoto University Precalculus: the Mathematics of Numbers, Functions and Equationsfrom University of Padova Einführung in die Graphentheorie from ITMO University PROGRAMMING Advanced MATLAB for Scientific Computing from Stanford University Building Web Applications in PHP from University of Michigan JavaScript, jQuery, and JSON from University of Michigan Building Database Applications in PHP from University of Michigan Introduction to Structured Query Language (SQL) from University of Michigan Database Systems Concepts and Design from Georgia Institute of Technology Programming Fundamentals from Duke University Parallel Programming in Java from Rice University Python Data Representations from Rice University Python Programming Essentials from Rice University Concurrent Programming in Java from Rice University Distributed Programming in Java from Rice University Introduction to Virtual Reality from University of London International Programmes Building Interactive 3D Characters and Social VR from University of London International Programmes 3D Interaction Design in Virtual Reality from University of London International Programmes 3D Models for Virtual Reality from University of London International Programmes Making Your First Virtual Reality Game from University of London International Programmes Agile Software Development from University of Minnesota Lean Software Development from University of Minnesota Engineering Practices for Building Quality Software from University of Minnesota Software Development Processes and Methodologies from University of Minnesota Server-side Development with NodeJS, Express and MongoDB from The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology Globally Distributed Software Engineering from Delft University of Technology Программирование на Python from Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology Основы HTML и CSS from Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology Основы дизайна мобильных приложений from Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology Introducción a la programación orientada a objetos en Java from Universidad de los Andes Object-Oriented Design from University of Alberta Design Patterns from University of Alberta Software Architecture from University of Alberta Service-Oriented Architecture from University of Alberta Video Game Design: Teamwork & Collaboration from Rochester Institute of Technology Aprende a programar en C desde cero from Universitat Jaume I Introducción a la programación en Python I: Aprendiendo a programar con Python from Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile Базы данных (Databases) from Saint Petersburg State University Fare Apps in classe, ora! from University of Urbino Introducción al diseño de videojuegos from Universitas Telefónica Creando Apps. Aprende a programar aplicaciones móviles from Universitas Telefónica Game Design and Development: Video Game Character Design from Abertay University Hacking PostgreSQL: Data Access Methods from Ural Federal University DATA SCIENCE Causal Diagrams: Draw Your Assumptions Before Your Conclusionsfrom Harvard University Principles, Statistical and Computational Tools for Reproducible Science from Harvard University Data Science: R Basics from Harvard University Big Data Analytics in Healthcare from Georgia Institute of Technology Statistical Modeling and Regression Analysis from Georgia Institute of Technology Data Analytics Foundations for Accountancy I from University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Introduction to Genomic Data Science from University of California, San Diego Python Data Analysis from Rice University Python Data Visualization from Rice University Understanding Your Data: Analytical Tools from University of Virginia Big Data and the Environment from University of Reading Knowledge Inference and Structure Discovery for Education from University of Texas Arlington Predictive Modeling in Learning Analytics from University of Texas Arlington Multimodal Learning Analytics from University of Texas Arlington Feature Engineering for Improving Learning Environments from University of Texas Arlington Cluster Analysis from University of Texas Arlington Learning Analytics Fundamentals from University of Texas Arlington Social Network Analysis (SNA) from University of Texas Arlington Connecting Learning Data to Improve Instructional Design from University of Texas Arlington Whole genome sequencing of bacterial genomes — tools and applications from Technical University of Denmark (DTU) Understanding Data from George Mason University Análisis de Datos Experimentales: Utilidades Básicas. from Universidad Politécnica de Madrid Advanced Data Mining with Weka from University of Waikato Тренды и классификации from Novosibirsk State University Введение в данные from Novosibirsk State University pt010: 高校生のためのデータサイエンス入門 from Shiga University Big Data Applications: Real-Time Streaming from Yandex Big Data Analysis: Hive, Spark SQL, DataFrames and GraphFramesfrom Yandex Big Data Essentials: HDFS, MapReduce and Spark RDD from Yandex HUMANITIES Religion, Conflict and Peace from Harvard University Masterpieces of World Literature: The Ancient World from Harvard University Masterpieces of World Literature: Fictions of the Modern World from Harvard University China Humanities: The Individual in Chinese Culture from Harvard University Sports and the University from Stanford University Supporting English Learners: Resources for Leaders from Stanford University Wonders of Ancient Egypt from University of Pennsylvania Race and Cultural Diversity in American Life and History from University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Studying in Italian — Law and Economics: a MOVE-ME Project Coursefrom The Open University Studying in Italian — Science and Mathematics: a MOVE-ME Project Course from The Open University Faith and Finance from Boston University Philosophy, Science and Religion: Philosophy and Religion from University of Edinburgh The Birmingham Qur’an: Its Journey from the Islamic Heartlands from University of Birmingham Frontières en tous genres from University of Geneva Incipit. Curso básico de lengua y cultura latinas from Universitat Politècnica de València Arab-Islamic History: From Tribes to Empires from Tel Aviv University El Valle de los Reyes from Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (Autonomous University of Barcelona) Knowledge Exchange: Using, Protecting and Monetizing Ideas with Third Parties from Leiden University ITA101 — Benvenuti in Italia! Orientarsi con l’italiano from Politecnico di Milano Re-imaging God in Korean Context from Yonsei University Mitos clásicos y mundo actual from Universidad Carlos iii de Madrid Philosophy for Children and P.E.A.C.E. from University of Naples Federico II La Letteratura latina in età post-augustea from University of Naples Federico II Dante tra poesia e scienza from University of Naples Federico II L’Italiano nel mondo from University of Naples Federico II La costruzione dell’Italia from University of Naples Federico II L’innovazione sociale per il patrimonio culturale from University of Naples Federico II Comprendere la filosofia from University of Naples Federico II Business Start–Up: From Idea to Launch from George Washington University Exercise Physiology — The Body In Motion from University of Exeter Safeguarding Athletes from Harassment and Abuse from McMaster University Writing your World: Finding yourself in the academic space from University of Cape Town Power of the Pen: Identities and Social Issues in Fiction and Nonfictionfrom University of Iowa Power of the Pen: Identities and Social Issues in Poetry and Plays from University of Iowa Sports Nutrition: Eat to Compete from Federal University of the State of Rio de Janeiro The Art and Science of Coaching from University of Pretoria Russian History: from Lenin to Putin from University of California, Santa Cruz Why Research Matters from Deakin University Humphry Davy: Laughing Gas, Literature, and the Lamp from Lancaster University Paesaggi di Roma Antica. Archeologia e storia del Palatino. from Sapienza University of Rome (K-12) Teaching Math to English Language Learners from Iowa State University The Spain of Don Quixote from Universidad Autónoma de Madrid Words Spun Out of Images: Visual and Literary Culture in Nineteenth Century Japan from The University of Tokyo Logic and Paradoxes from Universidad de Navarra New Zealand Landscape as Culture: Islands (Ngā Motu) from Victoria University of Wellington Китайский для начинающих (Chinese for beginners) from Saint Petersburg State University A History of Violence: From the Middle Ages to Modern Times from University of Newcastle Digital Culture and Writing from University of Burgundy Livres enluminés à la cour des Sforza from University of Pavia ga080: memento mori-死を想え- from Tohoku University 다문화 사회와 공존의 인문학 from Inha University Beer Matters from University of Wisconsin — Whitewater pt015: 食文化の本来と将来 from Kokushikan University Visión cristiana de la persona humana from Pontifical Catholic University of Valparaíso Spanish Across the Americas: Beginners from Universidad Nacional de Córdoba Comunicación cultural en España from Antonio de Nebrija University Fantastic Fiction and Where to Find It from Linnaeus University The Bible in Light of the Ancient Near East from Bar-Ilan University Introduction to Kabbalah from Ben-Gurion University of the Negev SOCIAL SCIENCES Essentials of Program Strategy and Evaluation from Stanford University The Threat of Nuclear Terrorism from Stanford University Love as a Force for Social Justice from Stanford University Democracy and Development: Perspectives from Africa from Massachusetts Institute of Technology Network Dynamics of Social Behavior from University of Pennsylvania Public Library Marketing and Public Relations from University of Michigan Fake News, Facts, and Alternative Facts from University of Michigan Grant Writing and Crowdfunding for Public Libraries from University of Michigan The Internet and You from University of Michigan Privacy, Reputation, and Identity in a Digital Age from University of Michigan Strategic Planning for Public Libraries from University of Michigan Infrastructure Management for Public Libraries from University of Michigan Introduction to Psychology as a Science 2 — Fundamentals of the Mind and Behavior from Georgia Institute of Technology Introduction to Psychology as a Science 3 — Normal and Abnormal Behavior from Georgia Institute of Technology Introduction to Psychology as a Science 1 — Methodological and Biological Foundations from Georgia Institute of Technology Everyday Parenting: The ABCs of Child Rearing from Yale University Risk and Return and the Weighted Average Cost of Capital from Columbia University Federal Taxation I: Individuals, Employees, and Sole Proprietors from University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Federal Taxation II: Property Transactions of Business Owners and Shareholders from University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign The Science of Parenting from University of California, San Diego Introduction to Social Research Methods from University of Edinburgh 电子商务 E-Commerce from Peking University Microeconomic Principles: Decision-making Under Scarcity from Arizona State University Stalin and Stalinism in Russian History from Higher School of Economics Justice, Mercy and Mass Incarceration from Vanderbilt University International Affairs: Global Governance from University of Geneva Genre : quels enjeux ? Violences, globalisation, biomédecine, sexualités. from University of Geneva El desarrollo de la relación laboral: Derechos y Obligaciones from Universitat Politècnica de València Evaluación de peligros y riesgos por fenómenos naturales from Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México 經濟學概論:誘因與市場(Introduction to Economics: Incentive and Markets) from National Taiwan University Trade, Immigration and Exchange Rates in a Globalized World from IE Business School Genius. Talent. Golden Mediocrity from Tsinghua University Political Economy of Institutions and Development from Leiden University After the Arab Spring — Democratic Aspirations and State Failure from University of Copenhagen ED101: Embracing Diversity from Politecnico di Milano SustArch101 — Sustainable building design for tropical climates: principles and guidelines for EAC from Politecnico di Milano La povertà nella società contemporanea from University of Naples Federico II Psicologia dell’apprendimento from University of Naples Federico II Il potere dei sondaggi from University of Naples Federico II Long-term Financial Management from University System of Maryland Flood Risk Management from RWTH Aachen University Counseling and Psychotherapy Theory from Seoul National University Global Prosperity Beyond GDP from University College London Principios de Microeconomía from George Mason University Responsive Cities from ETH Zurich Understanding the General Data Protection Regulation from University of Groningen Water for the People: Gender, Human Rights, and Diplomacy from Colorado State University Online Human Population Dynamics: Births, Deaths and Migrations from McGill University Life of the law from Universidad de Navarra Římské právo from Palacký University, Olomouc Les transitions énergétique-écologiques dans les pays du Sud from École normale supérieure Understanding child development: from synapse to society from Utrecht University Exploring Economics: Will the Next Generation Be Worse Off? from Griffith University Введение в гендерную социологию (Introduction to the Sociology of Gender) from Saint Petersburg State University Психолингвистика (Psycholinguistics) from Saint Petersburg State University Правовое регулирование отношений в Интернете. Российская перспектива from Saint Petersburg State University Global Studies: the End of Globalization? from Grenoble School of Management Психология сознания (Psychology of consciousness) from Saint Petersburg State University Understanding Violence Against Women: Myths and Realities from University of Strathclyde Theory of Change for Development from University of the Witwatersrand Сравнение и создание групп from Novosibirsk State University Исследование статистических взаимосвязей from Novosibirsk State University Ser competente digital, para vivir y convivir en la sociedad en red from Universitat Oberta de Catalunya Common Sense Economics For Life (Part 3) from Gus A. Stavros Center Beyond the Ballot: Women’s Rights and Suffrage from 1866 to Todayfrom Royal Holloway, University of London Common Sense Economics For Life (Part 1) from Gus A. Stavros Center Common Sense Economics For Life (Part 2) from Gus A. Stavros Center Common Sense Economics For Life (Part 4) from Gus A. Stavros Center Governance of Disaster Risk from University of Extremadura Gestión del agua: Introducción al tratamiento de aguas residuales/ Water management: Introduction to the Treatment of Urban Sewagefrom University of Extremadura Ser ciudadano hoy from Pontifical Catholic University of Valparaíso ga077: 都市の災害リスクとその備え from Osaka City University Green transport. Vehículos verdes, conectados y automatizados from Antonio de Nebrija University Digital Culture/Clutter: Life and Death on the Net from University of Haifa EDUCATION & TEACHING Integrating Language Development and Content Learning in Math: Focus on Reasoning from Stanford Graduate School of Education Constructive Classroom Conversations: Improving Student-to-Student Interactions from Stanford Graduate School of Education Introduction to Online and Blended Teaching from University of Pennsylvania CSET Math Subtest II Exam Preparation Resource from University of California, Irvine CSET Math Subtest III Exam Preparation Resource from University of California, Irvine CSET Science Subtest I Exam Preparation Resource from University of California, Irvine University Studies for Student Veterans from Columbia University Making Teacher Education Relevant for 21st Century Africa from The Open University AP® Psychology — Course 0: Introduction from The University of British Columbia Blended Learning Essentials: Developing Digital Skills from University of Leeds Sistemas de información y ordenadores, Parte 4: Programación from Universitat Politècnica de València DTransform101 — D-TRANSFORM: University Strategies in the Digital Age from Politecnico di Milano Educar para los nuevos medios: competencia mediática para docentesfrom Universidad de Cantabria Teaching Statistics Through Inferential Reasoning from Friday Institute Teaching Foundational Reading Skills from Friday Institute Researching learners’ experiences and uses of technology using action research from Oxford Brookes University (K-12/HE) Implementing UDL on Canvas from University of Tennessee Tinkering Fundamentals: Circuits from Exploratorium Tinkering Fundamentals: Motion and Mechanisms from Exploratorium Algoritmi quotidiani from University of Urbino Making Apps in Your Classroom, Now! from University of Urbino Coding in Their Classrooms, Now! from University of Urbino Algorithms in Your Classroom, Now! from University of Urbino College Readiness (FL17) — Reading, Writing and Math from Broward College Criterios para la Gestión y el Aseguramiento de la Calidad en la Educación Superior from Universidad de Chile Teaching Online: Reflections on Practice from Kirkwood Community College How to survive the first weeks at ATGM (Avans) from Avans University of Applied Sciences Hoe overleef ik de eerste weken bij de ATGM (Avans) from Avans University of Applied Sciences Gamification in educazione: nuove strade per apprendere! from University of Florence El profesor del siglo XXI from Pontifical Catholic University of Valparaíso TIC en la docencia from Universidad CES HEALTH & MEDICINE Interprofessional Education for 21st Century Care from Stanford University Staying Fit from Stanford University The Oral Cavity: Portal to Health and Disease from University of Pennsylvania Epidemiology in Public Health Practice from Johns Hopkins University Diagnosing Health Behaviors for Global Health Programs from Johns Hopkins University Patient Safety and Quality Improvement: Developing a Systems View (Patient Safety I) from Johns Hopkins University The People, Power, and Pride of Public Health from Johns Hopkins University Sleep Deprivation: Habits, Solutions, and Strategies from University of Michigan 大学生瑜伽 from Peking University The Science of Health Care Delivery from Arizona State University Introduction to Public Health Engineering in Humanitarian Contextsfrom École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne Causes of Human Disease: Transmitting and Fighting Infection from University of Leeds Causes of Human Disease: Exploring Cancer and Genetic Disease from University of Leeds Causes of Human Disease: Nutrition and Environment from University of Leeds Causes of Human Disease: Understanding Causes of Disease from University of Leeds Causes of Human Disease: Understanding Cardiovascular Disease from University of Leeds Fixing Healthcare Delivery 2.0: Advanced Lean from University of Florida Health Concepts in Chinese Medicine from The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology Creating Moments of Joy for People with Alzheimer’s from Purdue University Understanding Depression and Low Mood in Young People from University of Reading Clinical Biosafety Awareness for Public Health Professionals from Emory University Intermediate Level Biosafety Training for Public Health Professionalsfrom Emory University Schizophrenia from Wesleyan University 食品安全與風險分析(Food Safety&Risk Analysis) from National Taiwan University Viruses & How to Beat Them: Cells, Immunity, Vaccines from Tel Aviv University End-of-Life Care for People with Dementia from University of East Anglia The Role of Personal Assistants in Disability Support from University of East Anglia Managing Change in a Healthcare Environment from University of East Anglia Clinical Supervision: Teaching and Facilitating Learning from University of East Anglia Using Personalized Medicine and Pharmacogenetics from University of East Anglia Using Infection Control to Combat Antimicrobial Resistance from University of East Anglia Youth Mental Health: Helping Young People with Anxiety from University of East Anglia Clinical Supervision: Assessing and Providing Feedback from University of East Anglia Introduction to Translational Science from University of Rochester Introduction to Health Technology Assessment from University of Glasgow Fundamentos de la Seguridad del Paciente from Universidad de Cantabria El aula inclusiva hoy en día. Cómo afrontar el Trastorno del Espectro Autista y las Altas Capacidades from Universitat Jaume I Young People and their Mental Health from University of Cambridge Jongeren en hun psychische gezondheid from University of Groningen Everyday Chinese Medicine from The Chinese University of Hong Kong Positive Psychiatry and Mental Health from The University of Sydney 口腔种植学 (Implant Dentistry) from The University of Hong Kong Life with Diabetes from Curtin University Control and Elimination of Visceral Leishmaniasis from London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine The Lancet Maternal Health Series: Global Research and Evidencefrom London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine Promoción del envejecimiento activo from Universidad Autónoma de Madrid Curso SMART-ASD: Conectando Tecnologías con Personas con Autismo from University of Bath ZEKİ-OTİSTİK: Otizmli Bireyleri Teknoloji Kaynaklarıyla Eşleştirmekfrom University of Bath Valencian SMART-ASD: Recursos Tecnològics Adequats per a les Persones 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  11. (About G. V. Martini - G. V. Martini works as a senior product manager for a software company and is a subdeacon in the Orthodox Church. He and his family attends St. Innocent Antiochian Orthodox Church in Everson, Washington) October 10, 2017 · G. V. Martini Editor’s Note: This article is part of an October 2017 series of posts on the Reformation and Protestantism written by O&H authors and guest writers marking the 500th anniversary of the nailing of Martin Luther’s 95 theses to the church door at Wittenberg on October 31, 1517. Articles are written by Orthodox Christians and discuss not just the Reformation as a historical event but also the spiritual heritage that descended from it. December, 1524. A French wool carder named Jean Leclerc inconspicuously removes a bull of Pope Clement VII from the doors of the cathedral in Meaux. The bull promised indulgences, but Leclerc would not have it. In its place, he offered a rendering of Clement as the Antichrist. He was soon found out, sentenced to a brutal and public lashing after a short trial in Paris. And in March of 1525 he received his punishment, being thereafter exiled from his home. But this did not deter Leclerc from future trouble making. In the town of Metz, he continued his trade as a wool carder. For a while, he kept his contrary views to himself. But eventually, Jean found an opportunity to make a statement. He decided that on the occasion of the next holy procession to a shrine, he would make a definitive stand. The night before the procession was scheduled to take place, Leclerc took all of the icons and relics at the shrine and destroyed them. The next day, worshipers were obviously in shock. Leclerc was discovered and arrested for his actions, being immediately sentenced to death. On July 22, 1525, tortured alive for all to see, he reportedly spoke in a calm voice: “Their idols are silver and gold, the work of men’s hands.” Leclerc is but one example of the radicalization of Protestant Christians in sixteenth century France. Perhaps most well-known are the Huguenots and the bloody Protestant-Catholic wars that persisted to a climactic St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre in 1572. And while torturing people to death for their religious beliefs is not something any of us would either condone or accept, the high stakes during this period of history make it clear there were passionate, and deeply held beliefs on either side. But where did this anger come from? Why were common folk in France and other parts of Europe so suddenly angry at the very sight of images and relics? Calvin and the French Influence While he was forced to leave France by 1534, humanist and student of the law John Calvin published his first edition of Institutes of the Christian Religion in 1536, dedicating it to the king of France. And in 1539, the first Synod of Paris officially sought to organize the Protestant Church in France as a “Calvinist” one. Absent or not, Calvin and his theology were at the heart of the Protestant movement both in France and elsewhere in the sixteenth century. Throughout his magnum opus, Calvin writes on a number of theological topics. Divided into four books, the eleventh chapter of his first volume deals specifically with the issue of sacred images or icons. Being so influential over Christianity in France, his words carried substantial weight. And while Calvin would later condemn the violent and public acts of iconoclasm (much like Luther), this did not prevent him from holding a pointedly negative view regarding their use both within the Christian church and in the private devotions of Christians. As Orthodox Christians, we obviously hold icons to be holy and important objects. They are “windows into heaven,” as some have put it, and are a real way for us to be connected in the great communion of the Saints. They bridge the apparent divide between heaven and earth; between the heavenly eternity and the mutable present. And so, on this monumental anniversary of the Reformation, I thought it might be prudent to examine what Calvin himself had to say about icons and then consider what we as Orthodox Christians believe. Public execution and torturing those who disagree with us is not the answer—as I’m sure we can all agree—but if these matters were so serious in the sixteenth century, they are no less serious today. Theology is important, and something as seemingly innocent as the images of Saints deserves a serious examination—and a serious response—when charges of idolatry or heresy are made. All Images Are Idols? Calvin first argues from the standpoint that we are forbidden by scripture to make any depiction or pictorial representation of God (Institutes of the Christian Religion 1.11.1). Following the instructions given to Moses, we should not make “… an idol nor a likeness of anything, whatever is in the heaven above and whatever is in the earth below and whatever is in the waters under the earth.” And before these objects we must not “bow down” or “worship” (Exodus 20:4–5). This seems relatively straightforward, until one considers the implication and the actual intended message. As Orthodox Christians, we wholeheartedly agree that the invisible God, who is immaterial and uncircumscribable, cannot be depicted. Even if we wanted to, we could not accurately or faithfully represent God the Father. But who we have in the Incarnation is the “express image” (Heb. 1:3) of God the Father, the “icon of the invisible God” (Col. 1:15). In Jesus Christ we see God, and in his Incarnation, God reveals himself to us. While the Father and Spirit are both formless and invisible (1 Tim. 1:17; Heb. 11:27; 1 John 4:20), the Person of the Son is revealed to us in the God-Man Jesus Christ: “No one has ever seen God; the only Son, who is in the bosom of the Father, he has made him known” (John 1:18). And so as Calvin laments a straw-man of false idols made from stone and silver (1.1.1), the Orthodox Christian need only reply that we are receiving and venerating the image of God he himself has given to us. If making an image of Jesus Christ is “superstitious” or “falsehood,” the first violation belongs to God himself. Calvin goes on to reinforce his argument by citing the example of Moses hiding in the rock (1.11.2), yet this is obviously a pre-Incarnational example of the immaterial God being hidden from our eyes. In Christ, we need no longer turn away, for God has given us a face to behold. Images and Statues Contrary to Scripture Following on his previous point, Calvin suggests that the very idea of images or forms depicting the invisible God is contrary to scripture. How dare anyone “confer God’s honor upon idols” (1.11.4)? For Calvin, scripture clearly associates superstitions with being the “works of men’s hands,” and not from God. However, every example Calvin provides from the old covenant is an example of God’s people worshiping other gods or demons, not the one, true God. As Orthodox Christians, we must also guard against superstition, and ensure that our veneration of icons and relics is pointed towards the one, true God. We must remember that our hope is in him and not any material thing. But to reject something good and holy just because it has potential for abuse would be, as Martin Luther himself once argued, to abolish the sky, food, and everyone we hold dear. Images Make Bad Teachers Next, Calvin reflects on the words of Pope Gregory the Great, who once wrote to Serenus, Bishop of Marseilles regarding an act of iconoclasm. Apparently, Christians in Marseilles were worshiping images and so the local clergy had them destroyed and removed from their churches. But Gregory rebukes Serenus and his fraternity for this act, explaining that of course they should not be worshiped (“adored”)—which is due to God alone—but are to remain in the churches so those “ignorant of letters may at least read by looking at the walls what they cannot read in books” (Letter 105). But to Calvin, images are not useful for instruction at all, especially when compared with books. Whatever can be learned from images is “futile” and “false” (1.11.5), an opinion he holds to be in line with the Prophets themselves. To this point Calvin returns in several more instances throughout the chapter (e.g. 1.11.7, 1.11.12). But is this really the case? It seems possible Calvin was especially insistent on this point because a good portion of the Roman statuary and images of Saints in his day were influenced by a more Renaissance style (1.11.7). He notes that even some of these images were inappropriate for church, due to how they were dressed or positioned. Leaving that bit aside, how should Orthodox Christians respond to this historical (and scriptural) example? Orthodox Christians do not approve the adoration or “worship” of icons, which should only be offered to the Holy Trinity. We do not worship icons as idols but rather pay them respect, as we might kiss the precious photograph of a loved one, or as an American citizen might salute the American flag. We are not worshiping the paper of a photograph or the fabric of a flag, but are rather paying respect and affection (“service” or δουλεία) to their prototype. We affirm the words of St. Gregory the Great that any abuse or superstitions related to icons and relics should be condemned. In fact, the Church did this very thing during the deliberations of the Seventh Ecumenical Council. The letter to Serenus is not an opposing, patristic voice to the proper use of icons. St. Gregory stands firmly in the same tradition as Orthodox Christians to this day. Gregory’s belief—contra Calvin—that icons could not only instruct the illiterate, but also lead men of all ages and educations to a proper contemplation of and encounter with the Divine, was a belief shared by many fathers of the Church. St. John of Damascus once wrote that “we are led by perceptible icons to the contemplation of the divine and spiritual” (PG 94:1261a). St. Gregory of Nyssa remarked that he could not see an icon of Abraham with Isaac “without tears” (PG 46:572). And finally, the Seventh Ecumenical Council reflects on Nyssa’s tears: “If to such a Doctor the picture was helpful and drew forth tears, how much more in the case of the ignorant and simple will it bring compunction and benefit?” (NPNF2 Vol. 14, p. 539). Images Reflect a Later Corruption of the Church Calvin also suggests that icons and statues were an abuse not found in the early Church. He claims that “for about five hundred years, during which religion was still flourishing, and a purer doctrine thriving, Christian churches were commonly empty of images” (1.11.13). And while he does not expand on this point to a great extent, the insinuation is commonly held by enough authorities throughout the Reformation that it warrants a brief response. By archaeology alone, we know today that images and pictorial representation were inextricably linked with the worship and piety of the earliest Christians. The catacombs of Italy, for example, make this plain for anyone to see. The relics of martyrs were routinely placed beneath Eucharistic altars, with images of Mary, Saints, and Christ with his disciples on the walls and ceilings around those partaking of the most holy of Christian mysteries. And in Syria, we have the amazing house church of Dura Europos, a place with iconography in the Baptistry and place of worship (not to mention a nearby Jewish synagogue with much of the same). There is also very little to suggest in the writings of the Church fathers that iconography, the veneration of icons and relics, or their placement in churches was any sort of later “corruption” or invention. Instead, we see a continual strain of support and respect for their proper usage, and the ultimate vindication of iconodules in the eighth century’s Second Council of Nicaea. “Childish” Arguments of the Seventh Ecumenical Council Calvin next turns his attention to the Second Council of Nicaea, held near the great city of Constantinople in the year 787. He laments that “a wicked Proserpine named Irene” was responsible for the Council dictating that images in church “should be worshiped” (1.11.14). Much like the Franks before him, Calvin is utterly impaired in his evaluation of this Ecumenical Council due to a poorly (mis-)translated Latin edition. He in fact references the text of Charlemagne in this very section. Instead of an orthodox nuance between veneration and adoration (or “worship”), he sees an assembly of bishops and priests arguing for the worship of icons as if they were God himself. Unfortunately, most of Calvin’s evaluation of this event is based on the misleading fiction of the Carolingians, who had political—not theological—reasons for wishing to overturn and ignore the conclusions of this Council. That said, it is worth pointing out that the Ecumenical Council does not promote the worship of images as God, and goes to great lengths to promote their proper and orthodox use. All scriptural arguments made in their deliberations (e.g. from Gen. 28:18, 47:10,31; Ps. 44:13; 98:5,9 LXX; Heb. 11:21) are ignored by Calvin, being merely dismissed outright as treating Scripture “childishly” and “foully” (1.11.15). And so really, since Calvin fails to present any substantial or meaningful argument outside of a false translation of the Council and ignoring the actual arguments made therein—including from scripture—there is not much more to be said on our part. I do find it ironic that a man so passionate about all theology being based upon the scriptures is so quick to avoid an interaction with them and the holy fathers of this Council. Misquoting and Misrepresenting Augustine The final area we’ll cover is Calvin’s citations of Augustine as a supporter of his aniconic position. Here again Calvin assumes that the earlier, more pure Christians would’ve obviously rejected images as impious and idolatrous. They certainly saw in images “no usefulness” (1.11.13). He then cites Augustine as an agreeable authority. Calvin writes: However, if these letters of Augustine are read in context, it becomes immediately clear that the Bishop of Hippo has in mind the false idols of other religions. For example: In other words, idols and the veneration of false gods or “demons” are of course to be rejected, because these other religions are parroting the true worship and liturgy of Christianity. They are using our forms for the worship of a false deity. And for Augustine, the offerings and prayers of our Christian liturgy—including images—are “true religion,” when done according to the traditions of the Church (and when offered to the one, true God). Later, Augustine emphasizes: Far from “the work of men’s hands,” Augustine speaks of “divine authority” in contrast to “human presumption.” Calvin’s appeals to Augustine on the subject of icons and relics is much like his appeal to the minutes of the Second Council of Nicaea: they are appeals based on both fiction and misrepresentation. Concluding Thoughts So what can Orthodox Christians take away from all of this? First, it must be noted that there is much we hold in common with our Reformation brothers and sisters. Not everything that took place during the Reformation, and especially during the Magisterial Reformation, was in vain or without justification. The Western church of that era was certainly one in need of reform and correction, and we must remember that figures such as Martin Luther were not necessarily setting out to create a new church in their own image, but rather reform the church from within. In some cases, the latter meant appeals to the worship, theology, and practices of the “Greek Christians,” as with both Luther and the later Tübingen theologians. Second, it may be possible that some of Calvin’s arguments or positions on the issue of images and relics was excessively influenced by both bad translations and the abuses of the Western church in his day. For the former, we may give him the benefit of the doubt to some degree—though this is more difficult in the case of his use of Augustine’s letters. For the latter, we likely agree to a certain extent on the impropriety of superstition and misuse when it comes to both images and relics. However, Eastern Christians are not entirely without blame in terms of abuses, as (for instance) the Patriarchate of Constantinople was known to (in the eighteenth century) offer indulgences—though this was isolated and not a widespread or accepted practice elsewhere in the Church. Finally, we must also stand firm in our own beliefs related to iconography, as this is not some optional or secondary aspect of our beliefs as Orthodox Christians. This was made plain both during the first wave of Byzantine iconoclasm at the Seventh Ecumenical Council and in the ninth century by authorities such as Theodore the Studite. For example, the Studite writes: “If anyone should say that, when the image of Christ is displayed, it is sufficient neither to honor nor to dishonor it, thus refusing it the honor of relative veneration, he is a heretic.” As Orthodox Christians, it is not enough to take a fence-sitting stance on this issue, as we believe the very doctrine of the Incarnation is at stake. And so on this we depart, willfully, from our Reformed friends (and from the counter-arguments of the Carolingian Libri Carolini). It is also worth noting that the defense of icons and their proper veneration was not entirely a Byzantine affair. No, the Church was rather united on this point, even outside the confines of the Second Council of Nicaea or the ninth century in Constantinople. For a more Western or Roman Catholic perspective, one need only reference the Councils of Rome in 727 and 731, the Council of Gentilly in 767, and the Council of the Lateran in 769. In the veneration of icons, Orthodox Christians see an importance that transcends even our best or most elaborate written arguments. In the Incarnation, God has made himself known to us. He could be seen, felt, and heard. And through his friends, our Saints and Fathers, we see what it means to act, live, and love like Christ. We are provided examples of how to mold our own lives to be patterned after him. We pay honor to them, because they have imaged Christ to us. We follow in their footsteps because they have sought to follow in the footsteps of our God and Savior. And so we chant on every Sunday of Orthodoxy a refrain that has deep meaning and significance for every Orthodox Christian—a staunch reminder that the veneration of icons is no mere secondary concern or the imaginations of human presumption:
  12. Danas je, kao sto je i najavljeno, izasao novi - i ovaj put veliki - zvanicni trailer, pa stoga otvaram i temu. ...
  13. Saudi Arabia accidentally prints textbook showing Yoda sitting next to the king The founding of the United Nations was a historic moment that saw leaders from across the planet join together to commit to a more peaceful world. But most historians don’t remember the Jedi master Yoda being among them. The Saudi government is scrambling to withdraw a history textbook that accidentally included a doctored photograph of King Faisal sitting next to the little green Star Wars character. The picture was supposed to illustrate a section on the King’s rule but somehow the book’s editors used a version that showed Yoda perched next to the monarch as he signed the UN charter. “The Ministry of Education regrets the inadvertent error”, said Ahmed al-Eissa, the Saudi education minister. “The ministry has began printing a corrected copy of the decision and withdrawing the previous versions, and has formed a legal committee to determine the source of the error and to take appropriate action”. The black-and-white photograph of Faisal and Yoda is the work of a 26-year-old Saudi artist named Abdullah al-Sheri. “I am the one who designed it, but I am not the one who put it in the book,” he told the New York Times. Mr al-Sheri goes by the nickname Shaweesh and the picture was part of a series that showed film characters discreetly added to photographs of major moments in Arab history. One image shows Darth Vader standing behind Lawrence of Arabia and the king of Iraq at the Paris peace conference in 1919, which divided up much of the Middle East. Another has a young Arab boy looking down at Captain America from the back of a truck. Mr al-Sheri said that he paired up the king and Yoda because both were intelligent and because Yoda’s green skin and green lightsaber matched the green of the Saudi flag. “He was wise and was always strong in his speeches”, Mr. Shehri said of the king. “So I found that Yoda was the closest character to the king. And also Yoda and his light saber – it’s all green”. He only became aware that his picture had found its way into a textbook when his mother, who is a teacher, texted him after seeing a copy. “I meant no offense to the king at all”, he told the New York Times.
  14. Prošlog leta istraživači Međunarodnog monetarnog fonda su okončali dugu i gorku debatu o „neoliberalizmu“: priznali su da postoji. Trojica visoko rangiranih ekonomista pri MMF-u, organizacije poznate po opreznosti, objavili su članak u kom dovode u pitanje koristi neoliberalizma. Time su okončali predstavu o ovoj reči kao običnoj političkoj izmišljotini ili terminu bez analitičkog potencijala. Članak je oprezno prozvao „neoliberalnu agendu“ za sprovođenje mera deregulacije u ekonomijama širom sveta, za nasilno otvaranje nacionalnih tržišta ka trgovini i kapitalu, kao i za zahtev vladama da se same smanje kroz mere štednje i privatizacije. Termin „neoliberalizam“ se koristi od 1930-ih; oživljen je ponovo da bi opisao sadašnju politiku – tačnije, opseg ideja koje ova politika odobrava. U periodu posle finansijske krize 2008. godine, koristio se da ukaže na odgovornost za debakl – ne određene političke partije, već establišmenta koji je svoj autoritet prepustio tržištu. U slučaju demokrata u SAD i laburista u Ujedinjenom Kraljevstvu, ovo prepuštanje se opisuje kao groteskna izdaja principa. Kritika glasi da su Bil Klinton i Toni Bler napustili tradicionalne vrednosti levice, naročito obaveze prema radnicima, u korist globalne finansijske elite i javnih politika od kojih su i sami imali koristi. Posledica je poguban porast nejednakosti. Tokom nekoliko prethodnih godina debata se zaoštravala, termin „neoliberalizam“ je postao retoričko oružije za one levo od centra da inkriminišu sve koji su desno u odnosu na njih na političkom spektru. (Nije ni čudo što centristi tvrde da je u pitanju besmislena uvreda: kritika se odnosi najviše na njih.) Međutim, „neoliberalizam“ je više od umesne opaske. Na određeni način on predstavlja i naočari kroz koje gledamo svet. Pogledajte kroz naočari neoliberalizma i jasno ćete videti kako su politički mislioci koje su uvažavali Tačer i Regana doprineli oblikovanju društva kao univerzalne tržnice (a ne, na primer, polisa, javne sfere ili porodice) i ljudskih jedinki kao mašina za obračunavanje profita i gubitaka (a ne nosilaca božje milosti ili nosilaca neotuđivih prava i dužnosti). Naravno da su cilj bili slabljenje države blagostanja i privrženosti punoj zaposlenosti, smanjenje poreza i deregulacija. Međutim, „neoliberalizam“ označava nešto više od tipičnog desničarskog spiska lepih želja. To je bio način organizovanja socijalne realnosti i promišljanja našeg statusa kao individua. Ako nastavite da gledate kroz ove naočari videćete da je tržište ljudski izum, ništa manje od države blagostanja. Videćete koliko temeljno smo podstaknuti da o sebi mislimo kao o vlasnicima sopstvenih talenata i inicijative, sa kojom lakoćom smo instruisani da se takmičimo i prilagodimo. Videćete u kojoj meri je jezik koji se ranije služio prostim izrazima da opiše robna tržišta (konkurencija, savršena informacija, racionalno ponašanje) sada primenjen na celo društvo u toj meri da je prodro u sve pore naših privatnih života, i kako se trgovački stav prepliće sa svim oblicima samoizražavanja. Ukratko, „neoliberalizam“ nije samo ime za politike naklonjene tržištima, ili za kompromise koje je finansijski kapitalizam napravio sa propalim socijaldemokratskim strankama. To je ime za premisu koja je tiho postala glavni regulator naših praksi i uverenja: kompeticija je jedini legitimni princip organizovanja ljudske aktivnosti. Malo pre nego što je neoliberalizam dobio sertifikat o postojanju, i malo pre nego što je licemerje tržišta postalo očigledno, populisti i autoritarijanci su došli na vlast. U SAD je Hilari Klinton, tipična neoliberalna zloća, izgubila od čoveka koji je bar znao da se pretvara da mrzi slobodnu trgovinu. Da li to znači da su naočari sada beskorisne? Mogu li nam na bilo koji način pomoći da shvatimo šta nije u redu sa britanskom i američkom politikom? Najgrublji mogući oblici nacionalnog identiteta su oživljeni u borbi protiv snaga globalne integracije. U kakvoj su vezi ti militantni parohijalizmi bregzita u Britaniji i trampizma u Americi, sa neoliberalnom racionalnošću? Postoji li ikakva veza između svojeglavog i tupavog predsednika i beskrvnog uzora efikasnosti znanog kao slobodno tržište? Nije stvar samo u tome da slobodno tržište proizvodi mali broj pobednika i ogromnu armiju gubitnika koji se, tragajući za osvetom, okreću Bregzitu i Trampu. Od početka je postojala neizbežna veza između utopijskog ideala slobodnog tržišta i distopijske sadašnjice u kojoj smo se zatekli; između tržišta kao jedinstvenog stvaraoca vrednosti i čuvara sloboda, i našeg pada u svet postistine i iliberalizma. Pokretanje debate o neoliberalizmu sa mrtve tačke počinje, po mom mišljenju, sa ozbiljnim razmatranjem kumulativnih efekata neoliberalizma na sve nas, nezavisno od naših ideoloških opredeljenja. Ovo podrazumeva povratak njegovim korenima, koji nemaju ništa sa Bilom ili Hilari Klinton. Jednom je postojala grupa ljudi koji su sebe ponosno nazivali neoliberalima. Oni su imali ambiciju da izvrše temeljnu revoluciju u mišljenju. Najistaknutiji među njima Fridrih Hajek nije smatrao da omeđava novu poziciju na političkom spektru, da opravdava bezobrazno bogate, niti da se vrzma na rubovima mikroekonomije. Mislio je da rešava problem modernog doba: problem objektivnosti znanja. Za Hajeka, tržišta nisu samo omogućavala razmenu dobara i usluga – ona su otkrivala istinu. Kako je ova ambicija postala svoja suprotnost – glavolomna mogućnost da, zahvaljujući nepromišljenom veličanju slobodnog tržišta, istina u potpunosti nestane iz javnog života? *** Hajek je 1936. godine opisao rađanje Velike ideje kao trenutak „iznenadnog prosvetljenja“ – bio je ubeđen da je otkrio nešto novo. Pisao je: „Kako je moguće da kombinacija fragmenata znanja koji postoje u različitim umovima proizvede rezultate koji bi, da su povezivani sa namerom, zahtevali um koji nijedna individualna osoba ne poseduje?“ Ovo nije bila tehnička beleška o kamatnim stopama ili deflacionim padovima. Ovo nije bila reakcionarna polemika protiv kolektivizma ili države blagostanja. Ovo je bio početak novog sveta. Hajek je razumeo da se tržište može opisati kao um. „Nevidljiva ruka“ Adama Smita nam je već dala modernu koncepciju tržišta: autonomna sfera ljudske aktivnosti i stoga potencijalni objekt naučnog znanja. Međutim, Smit je bio i do kraja života ostao osamnaestovekovni moralista. Mislio je da se tržište može opravdati samo u svetlu individualne vrline i strepeo je da društvo vođeno isključivo trgovačkim i ličnim interesima više uopšte neće biti društvo. Neoliberalizam je učenje Adama Smita lišeno ove strepnje. Pomalo je ironično što se Hajek smatra osnivačem neoliberalizma – stilom mišljenja koji sve svodi na ekonomiju – ako se uzme u obzir da je on bio sasvim osrednji ekonomista. Bio je tek mladi, malo poznati bečki tehnokrata u vreme kada je regrutovan na Londonsku školu ekonomiju (London School of Economics) kako bi zasenio tadašnju zvezdu u usponu – Džona Majnarda Kejnza sa Kembridža. Plan je pošao po zlu i Kejnz je do nogu potukao Hajeka. Kejnzova Opšta teorija zaposlenosti, kamate i novca, objavljena 1936. godine, dočekana je kao remek-delo. Dominirala je javnom diskusijom, naročito među mladim engleskim ekonomistima na početku karijere. Za njih je briljantni, energični i dobro društveno pozicionirani Kejnz bio beau idéal. Do kraja Drugog svetskog rata mnogi poznati zastupnici slobodne trgovine su bili preobraćeni Kejnzovim načinom mišljenja, priznajući da država može da ima ulogu u organizaciji moderne trgovine. Početna oduševljenost Hajekom je opala. Njegova neobična ideja da nečinjenje može da izleči ekonomsku depresiju bila je diskreditovana u teoriji i praksi. Kasnije je priznao da želi da njegova kritika Kejnza bude naprosto zaboravljena. Hajek je bio smešna pojava: visok, uspravan, sa teškim akcentom, u odelu od tvida, insistirao je da mu se formalno obraćaju „fon Hajek“, ali su ga zvali „gospodin Fluktuacija“ iza leđa. Godine 1936. bio je akademik bez portfolija i sa neizvesnom budućnošću. Ipak, mi danas živimo u Hajekovom svetu, kao što smo nekada živeli u Kejnzovom. Lorens Samers, Klintonov savetnik i bivši profesor Univerziteta u Harvardu, rekao je da je Hajekova koncepcija sistema cena kao uma „prodorna i originalna ideja poput ideje mikroekonomije u dvadesetom veku“ i da je to „najvažnija lekcija koju možemo da naučimo iz kurseva ekonomije danas“. Ovo je potcenjivanje. Kejnz nije izazvao ili predvideo hladni rat, ali su njegove ideje pronašle put u svaki segment hladnoratovskog doba. Na isti način su Hajekove ideje utkane u svaki segment sveta posle 1989. godine. Hajekovski pogled na svet je totalan: to je način strukturiranja celokupne realnosti po modelu ekonomske konkurencije. Početna pretpostavka je da su gotovo sve (ako ne i sve) ljudske aktivnosti oblik ekonomskih kalkulacija, i da kao takve mogu da budu asimilovane u osnovne koncepte kao što su bogatstvo, vrednost, razmena, koštanje – a posebno cene. Cene su način za efikasno raspoređivanje oskudnih resursa, koje na osnovu potrebe i korisnosti, određuju ponuda i potražnja. Da bi sistem cena efikasno funkcionisao, tržišta moraju da budu slobodna i takmičarska. Od kako je Smit zamislio ekonomiju kao autonomnu sferu, postojala je mogućnost da tržište nije samo jedan deo društva, već društvo u celini. U takvom društvu, potrebno je samo da ljudi prate sopstvene interese i da se takmiče za ograničena dobra. Kroz takmičenje, pisao je sociolog Vil Dejvis, „postaje moguće razlučiti ko i šta ima neku vrednost“. Vrednosti koje svaka osoba koja poznaje istoriju vidi kao neophodnu prepreku tiraniji i eksploataciji – prosperitetnu srednju klasu i javnu sferu, slobodne institucije, univerzalno pravo glasa, slobodu savesti, okupljanja, veroispovesti i štampe, priznavanje urođenog dostojanstva – ne nalaze se u Hajekovom učenju. Hajek je u neoliberalizam ugradio pretpostavku da tržište obezbeđuje sve neophodne zaštite protiv jedine prave političke opasnosti: totalitarizma. Da bi sprečila totalitarizam, jedino što bi država trebalo da uradi je da održava tržište slobodnim. To je ono što neoliberalizam čini novim. U pitanju je ključna razlika u odnosu na starije poverenje u slobodno tržište i minimalnu državu, poznato pod imenom „klasični liberalizam“. U klasičnom liberalizmu trgovci jednostavno traže da ih „ostavimo na miru“ – laissez-nous faire. Neoliberalizam je prepoznao da država mora da bude aktivna u organizovanju tržišne ekonomije. Uslovi koji omogućavaju slobodno tržište moraju se izboriti političkom borbom, zbog čega država mora da se uspostavlja tako da stalno podržava slobodno tržište. To nije sve: svi aspekti demokratske politike, od glasanja do odluke političara, moraju se podvrgnuti čistoj ekonomskoj analizi. Donosilac zakona je u obavezi da se ne meša u ono što je samo po sebi već dovoljno dobro, tj. da ne remeti prirodne tokove tržišta. Na taj način, pod idealnim uslovima, država obezbeđuje fiksni, neutralni i univerzalni pravni okvir za spontano funkcionisanje tržišta. Svesno usmeravanje od strane vlade nikada ne može biti tako dobro kao „automatski mehanizam prilagođavanja“, tj. sistem cena koji ne samo što je efikasan, već maksimalizuje slobode ili prilike za ljude da naprave slobodan izbor u vezi sa svojim životom. Dok je Kejnz često putovao između Londona i Vašingtona, kreirajući posleratni poredak, Hajek je snuždeno sedeo u Kembridžu. Poslat je tamo za vreme ratnih evakuacija i žalio se da je okružen „strancima“, „svim vrstama istočnjaka“ i „Evropljanima skoro svih nacionalnosti, od kojih je samo šačica inteligentna“. Zaglavljen u Engleskoj, bez uticaja i poštovanja, Hajek je za utehu imao samo svoju Ideju – grandioznu ideju koja će jednog dana izmaći tlo pod nogama Kejnzu i svim ostalim intelektualcima. Prepušten sam sebi, sistem cena funkcioniše poput uma: tržište procenjuje ono što individua ne može da pojmi. Obraćajući mu se kao intelektualnom saborcu, američki novinar Valter Lipman je pisao Hajeku: „Nijedan um nikada nije razumeo društvo u celini… U najboljem slučaju um može da razume sopstvenu predstavu o društvu, koja je nepotpuna, i koja ima veze sa realnošću koliko senka sa čovekom.“ Ovo je grandiozna epistemološka tvrdnja: da je tržište način spoznaje koji radikalno prevazilazi kapacitete individualnog uma. Takvo tržište nije poput drugih ljudskih izuma kojima se može upravljati, već sila koju bi trebalo proučavati i podmirivati. Ekonomija prestaje da bude tehnika – kao što je Kejnz verovao – za postizanje poželjnih društvenih ciljeva, kao što su rast i finansijska stabilnost. Jedini društveni cilj je održavanje tržišta. U svom sveznanju tržište predstavlja jedini legitimni oblik saznanja pored koga svi ostali vidovi refleksije izgledaju parcijalni, u oba smisla te reči: mogu da shvate samo delić celine i zastupaju samo posebne interese. Individualno, naše vrednosti su lične, ili su samo gledišta; kolektivno, tržište ih konvertuje u cene, ili u objektivne činjenice. Posle neuspeha na LSE, Hajek više nikada nije imao stalno zaposlenje koje nije bilo plaćeno novcem korporativnih sponzora. Čak su ga i njegove konzervativne kolege sa Čikaškog univeziteta – svetskog epicentra libertarijanskog disidenstva 1950-ih – smatrale glasnikom reakcije, čovekom „desničarske provenijencije“ sa „desničarskim sponzorima“, kako je pisao jedan od njih. Sve do 1972. godine prijatelji su mogli da posećuju ostarelog Hajeka u Salcburgu, gde se utapao u samosažaljenju i uverenju da je sve radio uzalud. Niko nije mario za njegova dela. Bilo je, međutim, i naznaka nade: Hajek je bio omiljeni politički filozof Berija Goldvotera, a kako se pričalo i Ronalda Regana. A tu je bila i Margaret Tačer. Svakome ko je hteo da je sluša, Tačer je na sva usta hvalila Hajeka, obećavši da će sprovesti njegovu filozofiju slobodnog tržišta zajedno sa oživljavanjem viktorijanskih vrednosti: porodice, zajednice, marljivosti. Hajek se sastao sa Tačer 1975. godine, u momentu kada je ona imenovana za predvodnicu opozicije u Ujedinjenom Kraljevstvu i kada se pripremala da njegovu Veliku ideju izbavi iz zaborava istorije. Diskutovali su 30 minuta u Institutu za ekonomiju, u Ulici lorda Norta u Londonu. Posle sastanka osoblje Margaret Tačer je sa zebnjom upitalo Hajeka za mišljenje. Šta je mogao da kaže? Prvi put za 40 godina, Fridrik fon Hajek je u odsjaju moći video sliku o sebi koju je odavno gajio: sliku čoveka koji bi uskoro mogao da zbriše Kejnza i preobrazi svet. Odgovorio je: „Ona je prelepa.“ *** Hajekova Velika ideja i nije neka ideja – dok je ne uveličate preko svake mere. Organski, spontani, elegantni procesi koji, poput milion prstiju na Ploči duhova,1 koordinirano kreiraju inače neplanirane ishode. Primenjena na tržište (bilo da je reč o tržištu svinjetine ili terminskom tržištu kukuruza), ova ideja je skoro pa truizam. Može se dalje razviti da opiše kako tržišta dobara, rada i novca formiraju onaj deo društva koji nazivamo „ekonomija“. Ovo već nije tako banalno, ali je i dalje bezopasno: kenzijanac će rado prihvatiti ovaj opis. Ali šta ako napravimo još jedan korak i zamislimo celokupno društvo kao tržište? Što više proširujemo Hajekovu ideju, to ona postaje reakcionarnija i sve više sakrivena iza paravana naučne neutralnosti – i sve više omogućava ekonomistima da se povežu sa glavnim intelektualnim trendom koji je vladao u XVII veku. Uspon modernih nauka otvorio je pitanje šta znači biti čovek u svetu kojim rukovode zakoni prirode. Da li je čovek objekat u svetu, poput bilo kog drugog objekta? Izgleda da ne postoji način da se subjektivno i unutrašnje iskustvo priključi prirodi kakvom je vidi nauka – kao objektivnoj pojavi čije zakone otkrivamo posmatranjem. Sve je u posleratnoj političkoj kulturi išlo u korist Džona Majnarda Kejnza i proširenja uloge države u vođenju ekonomije. Na isti način je sve u posleratnoj akademskoj kulturi išlo u korist Hajekove Velike ideje. Pre rata su čak i najokoreliji desničari među ekonomistima smatrali tržište sredstvom da se postignu ograničeni ciljevi, da se efikasno preraspodele oskudni resursi. Od vremena Adama Smita iz sredine osamnaestog veka, do posleratnog vremena osnivača Čikaške škole, bilo je uobičajeno uverenje da se konačni ciljevi društva i života uopšte određuju van ekonomske sfere. Pitanja vrednosti se rešavaju politički i demokratski, a ne ekonomski – kroz moralnu refleskiju i argumentovanu javnu raspravu. Klasični moderni izraz ovog uverenja može se naći u eseju iz 1922. godine Etika i ekonomska interpretacija Frenka Najta, koji je stigao u Čikago dve decenije pre Hajeka. „Rezultati racionalne ekonomske kritike vrednosti odvratni su zdravom razumu“, pisao je Najt. „Čovek ekonomije je sebični, nemilosrdni predmet moralne osude.“ Punih dve stotine godina ekonomisti su se mučili da nađu mesto temeljnim vrednostima tržišnih društava van sfere sebičnih interesa i računica. Najt i njegove kolege Henri Simons i Džejkob Viner su se protivili Frenklinu D. Ruzveltu i njegovim njudilovskim tržišnim intervencijama. Osnovali su Univerzitet u Čikagu kao intelektualno rigorozan dom ekonomije slobodnog tržišta, kakav je ostao do današnjih dana. Međutim, Simons, Viner i Najt su započeli karijere pre nego što je neuporedivi prestiž atomskih fizičara privukao ogromne sume novca univerzitetima i podstakao posleratnu pomamu za „tvrdim“ naukama. Nisu se klanjali jednačinama i modelima, već su brinuli o nenaučnim pitanjima. Konkretno, brinuli su o pitanju vrednosti, koje je u potpunosti bilo odvojeno od pitanja cene. Nije samo reč o tome da su Simons, Viner i Najt bili manje dogmatski nastrojeni od Hajeka, ili više voljni da državi oproste oporezivanje ili javne troškove. Takođe, Hajek nije bio intelektualno superiorniji od njih. Reč je o tome da su oni polazili od principa da društvo i tržište nisu ista stvar, kao što ni cena nije isto što i vrednost. To učenje im nije obezbedilo mesto u istoriji. Hajek je bio taj koji nam je pokazao put iz beznadežnog stanja ljudske pristrasnosti do veličanstvene objektivnosti nauke. Hajekova Velika ideja je premostila jaz između naše subjektivne ljudske prirode i prirode uopšte. Iz toga je sledilo da bilo koja vrednost koja ne može da se izrazi kroz cenu, tj. ne predstavlja sud tržišta, postaje nesigurna – ništa više od pukog mišljenja, preferencije, narodnog verovanja ili sujeverja. Veliki čikaški ekonomista Milton Fridman je više nego bilo ko drugi, uključujući i Hajeka, doprineo da se vlade i političari priklone Hajekovoj Velikoj ideji. Pre toga je raskinuo sa dve stotine godina starom tradicijom, proglasivši ekonomiju „u načelu slobodnom od bilo kog moralnog stanovišta ili vrednosnog suda“, kao i „objektivnom naukom, na način na koji je fizika objektivna“. Stare vrednosti uma i moralna pravila su nesavršeni i predstavljaju „razlike oko kojih ljudi mogu samo da se glože“. Drugim rečima: postoji tržište, i postoji relativizam. *** Moguće je da su ljudska tržišta ljudske tvorevine najsličnije prirodi i da se, poput prirode, ne vode autoritetima i vrednostima. Međutim, primena Hajekove Velike ideje na svaki aspekt naših života negira ono što nas čini ljudima. Ono najljudskije kod ljudi, naš um i volju, prepušta algoritmima i tržištima, ostavljajući nas da poput zombija oponašamo svedene idealne ekonomske modele. Širenje Hajekove ideje i radikalno unapređenje sistema cena u neku vrstu društvenog sveznalaštva podrazumeva umanjivanje značaja naše individualne sposobnosti za razmenu dijaloga – sposobnosti da pružamo i procenjujemo opravdanja za svoje postupke i uverenja. Iz toga sledi da javna sfera – prostor gde obrazlažemo svoje mišljenje i osporavamo mišljenja drugih – prestaje da bude prostor argumentovane rasprave i umesto toga postaje tržište klikova, lajkova i retvitova. Internet su lični izbori uvećani algoritmom; pseudojavni prostor u kome odjekuju glasovi usađeni u naše glave. Umesto prostora za debatu kroz koju kao društvo napredujemo ka dogovoru, sada imamo povratno potvrđujući aparat banalno nazvan „tržište ideja“. Ono što na prvi pogled izgleda kao javno i smisleno, u stvari je produžetak naših postojećih gledišta, predrasuda i uverenja, dok su autoritet institucija i eksperata zamenjeni agregativnom logikom velikih baza podataka. Kada pristupimo svetu kroz polje za pretragu, dobijemo rezultate koji su, po rečima osnivača Gugla, rangirani od strane beskrajnog broja individualnih korisnika interneta koji funkcionišu kao tržište, neprestano i u realnom vremenu. Za razliku od fenomenalne korisnosti digitalnih tehnologija, ranija humanistička tradicija, koja je bila dominantna vekovima, uvek je pravila razliku između naših sklonosti i preferencija – želja koje se izražavaju na tržištu – i našeg kapaciteta da rasuđujemo o tim preferencijama, na osnovu kojeg formiramo i izražavamo svoje vrednosti. „Sklonost je možda najbolje definisati kao preferenciju oko koje se ne raspravljamo“, pisao je filozof i ekonomista Albert O. Hiršman. „Sklonosti oko kojih postoji rasprava, bilo sa drugima ili sa sobom, ipso facto prestaju da budu sklonosti i postaju vrednosti.“ Hiršman je pravio razliku između konzumerskog i kritičkog dela ličnosti. Tržište odražava preferencije koje su „osvešćene od strane ljudi koji kupuju dobra i usluge“. Međutim, ljudi takođe „imaju sposobnost da naprave otklon od ’osvešćenih’ želja, volje i preferencija, da se zapitaju da li zaista žele te želje i preferiraju te preferencije“. Mi zasnivamo naše ličnosti i identitete na osnovu ovog kapaciteta za rasuđivanje. Korišćenje individualnih moći rasuđivanja nazivamo razumom; kolektivno korišćenje ovih moći nazivamo javnom raspravom; korišćenje javne rasprave u svrhu izrade zakona i javnih politika nazivamo demokratijom. Kada obrazlažemo svoje postupke i uverenja, mi bivstvujemo: individualno i kolektivno, odlučujemo ko smo i šta smo. Sudeći prema logici Hajekove Velike ideje, ovi izrazi ljudskog subjektiviteta su beznačajni bez potvrde tržišta – kao što je Fridman rekao, oni nisu ništa drugo do relativizam, svaki izraz je dobar kao bilo koji drugi. Kada je jedina objektivna istina određena tržištem, sve druge vrednosti imaju status običnih gledišta i relativističkog praznoslovlja. Međutim, Fridmanov „relativizam“ je zamerka koja se može uputiti svakoj tvrdnji zasnovanoj na ljudskom razumu. To je besmislena opaska, jer su sve humanističke težnje „relativne“, za razliku od naučnih. Relativne su o odnosu na osobinu ličnosti da poseduje sposobnost za rasuđivanje i javnu potrebu za objašnjavanjem i razumevanjem čak i u slučajevima kada nemamo naučne dokaze. Kada prestanemo da rešavamo debate argumentovanom raspravom, njihove ishode rešavaju hirovi moćnika. Na ovom mestu se susreću neoliberalizam i politička noćna mora u kojoj živimo. „Daš čoveku jedan posao da obavi…“, glasi stara šala, a Hajekov grandiozni projekat, začet 30-ih i 40-ih godina, bio je osmišljen sa namerom da spreči nazadovanje u politički haos i fašizam. Međutim, njegova Velika ideja je oduvek bila nesreća koja čeka da se dogodi. Od početka je u sebi sadržala klicu onoga što je trebalo da spreči. Zasnivanje društva kao ogromnog tržišta vodilo je gubitku javnog života u korist prepirki oko pukih mišljenja, da bi se frustrirana javnost na kraju okrenula čvrstorukašima kao poslednjem pribežištu: oni mogu da reše inače nerazrešive probleme. *** Godine 1989. američki novinar je zakucao na vrata devedesetogodišnjeg Hajeka. Hajek je živeo u Frajburgu, u Zapadnoj Nemačkoj, u trospratnom apartmanu kuće građene u stucco stilu, u Uraštrase ulici. Seli su u osunčanu sobu čiji prozori su gledali na planine, a Hajek je, zbog upale pluća od koje se oporavljao, prebacio ćebe preko nogu. To više nije bio čovek koji se utapao u samosažaljenju zbog poraza od Kejnza. Tačer mu je upravo poslala pismo sa porukama trijumfa. Ništa što su Regan i ona postigli „ne bi bilo moguće bez vrednosti i ubeđenja koja su nas postavili na put i usadili ispravan osećaj za smer“. Hajek je bio zadovoljan sobom i optimističan u vezi sa budućnošću kapitalizma. Novinar je zapisao: „Hajek uviđa da mlađe generacije sve više uvažavaju tržište. Nezaposleni mladi protestuju danas u Alžiru i Rangunu ne u ime centralistički planirane države blagostanja već u ime prilike: prilike da slobodno kupuju i prodaju – džins, automobile, šta god – po bilo kojoj ceni koja odgovara tržištu“. Trideset godina kasnije možemo da kažemo da je Hajekova pobeda bez premca. Živimo u raju njegove Velike ideje. Što se više svet približava viziji idealnog tržišta sa savršenom konkurencijom, to se više uočavaju zakonitost i „naučnost“ u ponašanju ljudi kao gomile. Svakog dana, u svakom pogledu, sami težimo da sve više napredujemo kao raštrkani, tihi, anonimni kupci i prodavci – i niko više ne mora da nas podstiče na to! Svakog dana želju da budemo nešto više od običnih konzumenata gledamo sa nostalgijom ili je smatramo elitizmom. Ono što je počelo kao novi oblik intelektualnog autoriteta ukorenjenog u dosledni apolitički pogled na svet, sa lakoćom je gurnuto u ultrareakcionarnu politiku. Ekonomisti tvrde da ono što ne može da se kvantifikuje ne može ni da postoji, ali kako onda izmeriti ključne doprinose prosvetiteljstva, naime: kritički um, ličnu autonomiju i demokratsko upravljanje? Kada smo napustili um zbog njegove sramne subjektivnosti, um kao oblik istine, i na njegovo mesto postavili nauku kao jedinog sudiju stvarnosti i istine, kreirali smo prazninu koju je pseudonauka spremno popunila. Autoritet profesora, reformatora ili pravnika ne počiva na tržištu, već na humanističkim vrednostima kao što su odanost opštem dobru, savest ili težnja za pravdom. Puno pre nego što je Trampova administracija počela da ih ponižava, ove profesije su ostale bez značaja u eksplanatornim šemama koje nam ništa ne saopštavaju. Zasigurno postoji veza između njihove rastuće beznačajnosti i dolaska na vlast Trampa, oličenja kaprica, čoveka koji ne poseduje principe i uverenja koliko je potrebno da se načini koherentna ličnost. Čovek bez savesti, predstavnik potpunog odsustva uma, predvodi svet u pogrešnom pravcu. Kao svaki pametnjaković koji prodaje nekretnine na Menhetnu, Tramp zna znanje: njegove grehe tek treba da kazni tržište. Stephen Metcalf, Preveo Marko Sinđić
  15. Denying to the Grave (2016)

    Version 1.0.0

    8 downloads

    Психологија човјека и породице која се бави утицајем медија и корпорација на психичко и физичко здравље људи
  16. http://www.quizony.com/which-dwarf-from-snow-white-and-the-seven-dwarfs-are-you/index.html
  17. Version 1.0.0

    11 downloads

    Joseph A. Fitzmyer
  18. Šta reći za ovaj film? ja jedva čekam da ga gledam. http://www.imdb.com/title/tt2345759/
  19. Ukoliko ste zauzeti i ne želite da započnete vremenski zahtjevan proces gledanja nove serije, koji uključuje gledanje tri već objavljene epizode (koje u prosjeku traju oko 50 minuta) i iščekivanje novih epizoda narednih sedam sedmica, nemojte čitati dalje ovaj tekst! Ne, ozbiljno. Ne šalim se. Nakon svega što imam da napišem o ovoj seriji, neće biti opcija da je ne pogledate. Proglašena od strane kritičara “nenamjerno najrelevantnijom” serijom 2017. godine (prventsveno zbog političke klime u SAD), “The Handmaid’s Tale” dolazi kao pravo osvježenje na TV ekrane. Ukoliko patite od statistika i brojeva, serija trenutno na stranici IMDB ima rejting od 8.9/10, dok na stranici Rotten Tomatoes ima postotak od visokih 98%. Sa druge strane, ako vas zanimaju mišljenja kritičara, ona su gotovo isključivo pozitivna. Neke od najrelevantnijih kritika donosi Variety, koji je opisuje kao “uznemirujuću, impresivnu i užasno lijepu viziju previše bliskog distopijskog svijeta”, i The New York Times, koji koristiti epitete “nepokolebljivo, vitalno i zastrašujuće”. Na kraju, ukoliko vas zanima moje mišljenje, iz nekog razloga, ono jeste da je ova serija vizuelno jedna od najljepših ikad snimljenih, a priča je toliko uvjerljiva, zastrašujuća i relevantna da ćete je mrzjeti i voljeti u isto vrijeme. “The Handmaid’s Tale” je nova serija Hulu striming servisa, rađena po romanu Margaret Atvud (Margaret Atvud), u adaptaciji Brusa Milera (Bruce Miller) i same Margaret. Roman istog imena, Atvud je napisala 1985. godine, a i roman i serija prate priču o Ofred, ženi koja je primorana da živi u distopijskoj i totalitarističkoj državi Gilead, kojom vladaju hrišćanski fundamentalisti. Konkretnije rečeno, primorana je da živi u režimu gdje žene nemaju nikakva prava, ljudi su podijeljeni na kaste i bilo kakav oblik neposlušnosti se kažnjava smrću ili izgnanstvom u kolonije, tj. radne logore, u kojima zatvorenici čiste toksični otpad dok ne umru od posljedica izlaganja istom. Radnja romana se dešava oko 2005. godine, ali reference na Tinder i Uber je smještaju u sadašnje vrijeme. U ovom svijetu, fertilitet je drastično opao, pa su plodne žene poput Ofred smještene u kastu “službenica” (handmaids) – žena čija je jedina svrha u životu da rode djecu “komandirima vijernih” (Commander of the Faithful), vladajućoj kasti ovog režima. Sumirana u jedan pasus, radnja možda zvuči komplikovano, ali uz naraciju i flashback-ove, vrlo lako ćete uploviti u svijet koji je kreirala Margaret. Ono što je učinilo ovu seriju toliko relevantom jeste činjenica da je zbog trenutnog stanja političke scene u Americi ovo djelo fikcije realnije od onoga koliko smo spremni to da priznamo. Tvrditi da je stanje stvari kakvo je u ovoj priči nešto što bi moglo da se desi, svakako jeste nategnuto, ali brilijantno je što se postavljaju prava pitanja. Pitanja koja ukazuju na probleme i tjeraju na razmišljanje. Još jedna pohvalna stvar koju moram spomenuti jeste činjenica da u svijetu u kom su žene izgubile sva prava i muškarci upravljaju svojim i njihovim životima, te predstavljaju superiorna bića, muškarci nisu predstavljeni kao zli, već su, kao i svi ostali, i oni potčinjeni režimu u kom žive. Ova neobična priča praćena je i neuobičajenim vizuelnim stilom za jednu seriju. Kadrovi su filmični, pa se stiče dojam da gledate jedan veoma dug film, što nikako nije negativna karakteristika. Kinematografkinja i režiserka Rid Morano (Reed Morano) pobrinula se da stvori vizuelno veoma zanimljive tri epizode, miješajući jarke boje kostima sa bljedunjavim svijetom, koji podsjeća na onaj kakav smo mogli vidjeti, recimo, u Egersovom (Robert Eggers) ostvarenju “The Witch”, iz 2016. godine, čija je radnja smještena u 16. vijek. Osim Morano, na seriji su radila još četiri režisera, od kojih sada imamo velika očekivanja. Fenomenalnu glumačku postavu predvodi Elizabet Mos (Elisabeth Moss), koja se proslavila ulogom u seriji “Mad Men” i koja briljira od prve do zadnje minute sve tri (zasad objavljene) epizode. Pridružuju joj se, između ostalih, i Ivon Strahovki (Yvonne Strahovski, “Dexter”), Aleksis Bledel (Alexis Bledel, “Gilmore Girls”) i Samira Vajli (Samira Wiley, “Orange Is the new Black”), čineći zajedno izvanrednu, većinski žensku glumačku postavu. Kao i sve drugo na ovom svijetu, ni ova serija nije savršena, pa u nekim trenucima pribjegava senzacionalizmu, ali to je poprilično neizbježno, a i oprostivo u odnosu na sve dobre strane koje sam pobrojala. Ukoliko nekim čudnim spletom okolnosti još uvijek niste riješeni da pogledate “The Handmaid's Tale”, vjerujem da će nakon gledanja trejlera svaka sumnja nestati. Uživajte gledajući, ja svakako jesam. http://bosonoga.com/2017/05/02/nenamjerno-najvaznija-serija-2017-godine/
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