The thesis begins by analysing past treatments in theological literature of the Schism at Antioch, and by discussing the distinctive features of the Antiochene Church. The character of Antiochene theology is considered, beginning with Paul of Samosata, the 'school of Lucian', and the rise and fall of Eustathius of Antioch. The early stages of the Schism, especially under the episcopate of Leontius are considered, and the events surrounding the election and first exile of Meletius; these are related to the wider context of relations between East and West following the Council of Serdica, and to Eastern creed-making after Nicaea. The events following the accession of the emperor Julian, especially the Synod of Alexandria in 362 and the consecration of Paulinus as rival bishop of Antioch are discussed. Attention is given to the role of Basil of Caesarea, as shown in his letters, and to the role of Pope Damasus in the West, and Apollinarianism in the East, in particular as relating to the recognition of Paulinus at Rome in 375/6. The restoration of Meletius on the death of Val ens, and the subsequent conciliar activity at Antioch, Constantinople and Rome is considered, with reference to the alleged compact between Meletius and Paulinus and the position of Gregory of Nazianzus, and the controversy resulting from the election of Flavian on Meletius' death as bishop of Antioch. The continuing local Schism is illustrated from the sermons of John Chrysostom, and the efforts of Flavian to extinguish the Schism are described. The final reconciliations between Alexandria and Antioch and between Rome and Antioch are described, and the efforts made to bring about reunion in Antioch itself. The thesis concludes with an analysis of the theological, christological and canonical considerations which caused the Schism, and a reflection on the characters of the principal parties involved.